Thomas Alva Edison Self educated, worked from teen years as telegraph operator and invented improvements on the telegraph. Received many patents in telegraphy and built his “invention factory” at Menlo Park, NJ in 1870s. Invented his “Talking Machine” or recording device in 1877 using tin cylinders and a needle. Actually, there was another inventor of recording! 1857 - Scott de Martinville created a device to record sound for the very first time. His Phonautograph mimicked the structure of the human ear to scratch wavy lines onto paper that had been blackened by the soot of an oil lamp. These first known recordings of the human voice were never actually heard until 2007 when scans of these images were sent to the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley Lab where they were converted into sound by the scientists Carl Haber and Earl Cornell . Edison did not utilize recording to record music initially, instead using it as a device for business to take dictation for secretaries. In the 1890s he entered both the manufacturing of hardware with cylinder recorder/players and the production and distribution of the software with commercially recorded wax cylinder “records’. Entertainment in the late 19 th Century: Music Halls; Vaudeville Minstrel shows Amusement Parks Circuses “Museums”: Freak Shows and Curiosities Theater/ Opera
Dioramas: enormous scenic representations of historical events, battles, etc. with 3 D figures and sometimes live narration and music, sometimes in 360 degrees. In Boston the “Cyclarama” Preconditions to film: Awareness of “Persistence of vision” Ability to project a rapid series of image – ultimately needing about 16 frames per second to create persistence of vision illusion. The invention of celluloid “film” by George Eastman in 1888 to make “consumer” photography possible with rolls of films. These rolls soon adapted with sprockets added to made motion picture films. A suitable intermittent mechanism was needed for both cameras and projectors. Precursors to film Eadward Muybridge photographed a series of running horses with 12 cameras that recorded half second intervals and used a lantern to project these “moving images”. Praxinoscope and Zoetrope: projected movement with photographs and drawings Early filmmakers: Thomas Edison and his assistant W.K.L.Dickson develop the Kinetograph Camera and Kinetoscope, viewing box in 1891. Dickson cut film into 35 mm wide strips and punched 4 holes on either side for sprockets: This becomes the stand for film even now. Moves at 46 frames per second.
Build the Black Maria Studio on wheels to be able to move and catch the sun. They make 20 second films at first, mostly acrobatics, sports, Annie Oakley shooting, body builder etc.
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- Spring '08
- Thomas Alva Edison, films, eye line match, motion picture company, motion picture films