Chapter 5,6,7 Review Questions Terms: - Mainstreaming The integration of adolescents who have educational handicaps into regular classrooms Big fish-little pond effect : The reason that individuals who attend high school with high- achieving peers feel worse about themselves than comparably successful individuals with lower achieving peers. - Tracking Separating students, by academic ability, into different classes within the same school 1. Proponents argue that ability-grouping allows teachers to design class lessons that are more finely tuned to students' abilities - Age Grading The process of grouping individuals within social institutions based on age Age Grading in public schools has had a huge impact on social life of adolescents - Cohort A group of individuals born during a particular period - Group (Text Definition) Groups of individuals roughly the same - Clique *Small, tightly knit groups of about 2- 12 friends, generally of the same sex and age Average is 5-6 *Defined by friendship or common activities *Provides main social context in which adolescents interact with one another 1. A study of the structure, prevalence, ad stability of cliques among 9th graders in 5 different high school within large American school districts illustrate the ways in which clique’s structure adolescents' friendship network - Crowd Large, loosely organized groups of young people, composed of several cliques and typically organized around a common shared activity Based on reputation or stereotype (not friendship): nerds and jocks 1. 9th graders more likely than older students to say that excluding someone from activities on the basis of their crowd is okay 2. Provides basis for ones’ identity 3. Multiethnic high schools' adolescents first divide across ethnic lines and then form into the more familiar crowds
Chapter 5,6,7 Review Questions - Isolates Individuals who have few or no links to others in the network - Nerds Someone who likes things that the majority don’t (Ex. Anime, Card games, video games) - Liaisons Individuals who interact with 2 or more adolescents who are members of cliques, but themselves aren’t part of it - Jocks Physically fit individuals who partake in sports; Usually popular - Instrumental Aggression Aggressive behavior that is planned - Reactive Aggression Aggressive behavior that is unplanned and impulsive - Secondary Education 1. The system of middle, junior high, and high schools 2. Rise of secondary education in America was the result of several historical and social trends that converged at the turn of the 20th century -Industrialization -Urbanization -Immigration 3. Development of achievement, motivation, aspirations, and expectations is profoundly affected by school experience - Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The idea that individuals' behavior is influenced by others' expectations for them -
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- Winter '15
- Secondary education, Adolescent Society