Chapter 7 Study Guide.doc - Chapter 7 Thinking Intelligence...

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Chapter 7: Thinking, Intelligence, and Language Chapter Overview The Value of a Really Good Idea So many of the everyday things we take for granted started as someone else’s good idea. These inventions happened because somebody noticed a problem and came up with a solution. Having a really good idea is the beginning of a long journey—one that can be difficult and costly. Crowdfunding is raising money, often via the Internet, for ideas. Crowdfunding is a good idea to assist other good ideas! For example, Kickstarter.com is a place where creative people can apply to receive start-up funds to put their really good ideas into action. Most interesting is that those who pledge funds to the projects are not typical investors. In fact, they are not investors at all. They receive nothing (except perhaps a t-shirt or trinket) in return for their pledge money; they are lending financial support to the inventors based solely on their own enthusiasm for a really good idea. This chapter explores the thinking and intelligence that underpin such endeavors. 1. The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology Cognitive psychologists study cognition or the way information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing. In the 1950s, the age of behaviorism started to change. The invention of computers provided a new way to think about the human mind. Researchers speculated that some mental processes might be modeled by computers, which could provide information about how the human mind works. Computers provide a logical, concrete model of how information is processed in the mind. The information entered into a computer is done so by humans, who have coded the information and removed much of its ambiguity. In the human mind, each brain cell, or neuron, can respond to information— that is often ambiguous—transmitted through sensory receptors such as the eyes and ears. Computers can do many things faster and better than the human mind. However, the human mind can learn new rules, relationships, concepts, and patterns that it can generalize to new situations. Computers are limited in their ability to perform these functions. Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the science of creating machines that are capable of performing activities that require intelligence when they are performed by people. 2. Thinking Thinking involves manipulating information mentally by forming concepts, solving problems, making decisions, and reflecting in a critical or creative manner. A. Concepts Concepts are mental categories that can be used to group objects, events, and characteristics. There are four reasons concepts are important. First, concepts allow us to generalize. Second, concepts allow us to associate experiences and objects. Third, concepts aid in memory.
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  • Fall '08
  • Giza
  • Psychology, Intelligence quotient, Robert J. Sternberg

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