Matrix 2.pdf - Manufacturing of composites MECH 415/6521...

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Manufacturing of composites MECH 415/6521 Suong V. Hoa Concordia Center for Composites Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Concordia University Matrix
Diff e ren t type s of matrix materials Polymer matrix composites Carbon/epoxy Glass/epoxy Glass/polyester Kevlar /epoxy Metal matrix composites Silicon carbide/aluminum Carbon fiber/aluminum Ceramic matrix composites Carbon/carbon Carbon/alumina There are more polymer matrix composites as compared to other types of composites due to the Compatibility condition.
Differ e nt type s of p olymer mat r ix materials Thermoset matrix composites Carbon/epoxy Glass/epoxy Glass/polyester Kevlar /epoxy Thermoplastic matrix composites Carbon/PEEK Carbon/PPS Glass/nylon There are more thermoset matrix composites as compared to thermoplastic matrix composites due to the Availability condition.
Table 2.1: Viscosity of a few thermoset and thermoplastic materials (in centipoise) 1 Pa-sec = 10 Poise = 1000 centi-Poise Material 20 o C 25 o C T o C Air 0.0187 Water 1 Polyester 100-300 Vinyl ester 100-300 #10 Motor oil 500 Golden syrup 2,500 Epoxy (Shell Epon 828-14 phrMPDA, 15 phr BGE) 600 Epoxy (Shell 826 16 phr MPDA, 10phr BGE) 750 Epoxy (Dow 332-16 phr MPDA, 10 phr BGE) 500 Molasses 10 5 Epoxy 5208 [email protected] o C BMI [email protected] o C Ryton (thermoplastic) 10 7 @313 o C PEEK (thermoplastic) 10 6 @400 o C Utem (thermoplastic) 10 8 @305 o C Torlon (thermoplastic) 10 9 @350 o C
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 2.1 : Schematic of (a) the molecules in a thermoset resin, (b) the linking molecules, (c) the resin molecules and the linking molecules in a container before linking reactions, (d) the thermoset resin network after linking reactions, and (e) a partially linked network.
Thermoset matr i x polyme rs Thermoset matrix composites Carbon/epoxy Glass/epoxy Glass/polyester Kevlar /epoxy Thermoplastic matrix composites Carbon/PEEK Carbon/PPS Glass/nylon There are more thermoset matrix composites as compared to thermoplastic matrix composites due to the Availability condition.
Figure 2.2: Schematic of the molecules in a thermoplastic resin.
Polye s te r pro d ucti o n
Example 2.1: It is desired to make a polyester resin using 100 g of maleic acid and a corresponding amount of ethylene glycol. A stoichiometric amount of ethylene glycol is used. After the condensate is removed, how many grams of polyester are obtained? Mass of different atoms: C = 12 g/mol, H = 1 g/mol, O = 16 g/mol, N = 14g/mol REPEATING UNIT Maleic acid: 4 C + 4 H + 4 O = 4 ( 12 + 1 + 16) =116 g/mole Ethylene glycol: 2 C + 6 H + 2 O = 24 + 6 + 32 = 62 g/mole The reaction takes place as shown in the following: It can be seen that one molecule of maleic acid reacts with one molecule of ethylene glycol to make a unit of ester and two water molecules. Mass of the water molecule: 2 H + O = 18 g/mole. Let M p be the mass of the polyester made using 100 g of maleic acid, we have: (M p /100) = (116 + 62 - 36)/116 = 1.224 . M p = 122.4 g.
Initiators Table 2.2: Structures of commercial organic peroxides [2] Name of peroxide Chemical structure Hydrogen peroxide H-OO-H Hydroperoxides R-OO-H Dialkyl peroxides R-OO-R Diacyl peroxides R-C(O)-OO-C(O)-R Peroxyesters R-C(O)-OO-R Peroxy Acids R-C(O)-OO-H Peroxy Ketals R 2 -C-OO-R 2 Peroxy Dicarbonates R-OC(O)-OO-C(O)O-R
Polyeste r cros s lin k ing

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