Ted Hughes Paper.docx - Kenia Rangel P 4 Ted Hughes WWI Influence Ted Hughes writes about the way in which the First World War overshadowed his

Ted Hughes Paper.docx - Kenia Rangel P 4 Ted Hughes WWI...

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Unformatted text preview: Kenia Rangel P. 4 Ted Hughes WWI Influence: Ted Hughes writes about the way in which the First World War overshadowed his childhood, and of its greater impact on the Calder Valley where he spent the first eight years of his life. He explored this theme in poems such as ‘Six Young Men’ and ‘Bayonet Charge’, and wrote throughout his career about the impact that the conflict had upon his parents’ generation. Hughes’s father William served in the Lancashire Fusiliers, joining up in Rochdale in September 1914 and fighting first at Gallipoli and later in France. Many of the men in the Calder Valley and across the region joined up with friends in so-called 'Pals Battalions' early in the war, and the massive casualty rates which followed decimated the communities that they had left behind. This shows how Ted Hughes was incredibly affected by all of the violence. Hughes explored the impact of the First World War in a number of poems in his first poetry collection The Hawk in the Rain. An example of Ted Hughes’ World War One influence on his poems is the following poem, ‘Six Young Men’, which was inspired by a photograph of a group on a Sunday afternoon outing on the hills above Mytholmroyd, is poignant as the poet cannot escape the knowledge that none of the men were to survive the war. The fact that they were sitting in a place Hughes knew so well, links the past even more closely to the present for Hughes. In other poems, Hughes considered the different consequences of war, from the personal experience of the family frightened by their father’s nightmares in ‘For the Duration’ to the memorializing of the dead in the poems ‘Out I, II, III’. Interestingly, while Hughes did not feel able to talk to his father about the war, in these drafts he is often in direct conversation with him, perhaps seeking answers to the questions which he had not felt able to ask. Through his poems he tries to finds answers that weren’t given to him before, by his father. WWII Influence: In addition to Wilfred Owen, Hughes’s work in the 1960s also included literary criticism of poets of the Second World War. Ted Hughes in particular, admired the work of the poet Keith Douglas who died in 1944 aged only 24. In a radio program entitled ‘Life and Letters / Three Poets of the Second World War’, first broadcast in 1964, Hughes considered the poetry of three young poets who all lost their lives in the conflict: Keith Douglas, Drummond Allison and Sidney Keyes. In his introduction to the program Hughes attributed the development of the term ‘war poet’ to those poets writing in the First World War who began to write about the horrors and realities of war rather than creating the overtly jingoistic verse of earlier conflicts. Hughes felt that poets of the Second World War were influenced by the previous generation, although their poetry was no longer about the injustice of the conflict but instead about one’s own chance of survival. Hughes’s work explores the legacy of the two world wars on different levels by considering the impact upon his family and community, as well as the effect upon literature of the period. Both published and unpublished material provide an insight into Hughes’s views on war and enable one to understand its impact and what it was like growing up during the interwar period. Man and Animals: Ted Hughes, who obtained the fame of Poet Laureate in 1984, totally had 8 major collections that represented a great variety of forms and subjects during his life. One of them being the series of animal images that established his fame of "animal poet" or "nature poet". His special subject matters and bold style made his poems quite different from other contemporary poets. Ted Hughes had been living near the wide moorland and spending a great time on fishing and hunting, he had been attracted by beauty and power of nature since his childhood. However, his feelings towards animals were more than pure appreciation, as one may think. As a perspective and thoughtful poet, he not only vividly portrayed an animal world in his poems, but also revealed his philosophical thoughts. Between human beings and animals, there are several complex and profound relationships. Hughes was inspecting animals in the wild nature, but by deeper analysis of the relationship between animals and human beings, we can find that he was expressing his mystical beliefs on human beings through those animals. Therefore, he uses animals as a means to express his own philosophy about human beings. Many of his poems are based on animals for that matter. In these poems he deals with violent instinct of animals he actually deals with wild instinct in human beings. His main focus of attention is not an animal but on a human being. This means that when you think he is talking about an animal in a poem and about its “animalistic characteristics” he really isn’t, he is actually talking about the way that us humans are also ‘animals’ and do not portray ‘human-like’ characteristics at one point or another. Mythology: Hughes was attracted to myths from an early age: ‘I began reading myths and folklore when I was thirteen or fourteen, and for years, apart from poetry, that was pretty well all I read’. At Cambridge, Hughes switched from English to Anthropology in his second year following a disturbing dream in which he was visited by a burnt fox. Ted Hughes interpreted the dream as a warning that in his literary studies he was neglecting his inner life, which he associated with the imagination, myth and creativity. This then lead to his poems having an extreme symbolical meaning. Throughout his life he claimed the fox as a totemic animal that appeared at critical times to alert him to some crisis. For Hughes, vitality and death were the divine forces in nature that early man had attempted to control and make sense of through myth and ritual. In The White Goddess, which Hughes described as ‘the chief holy book of my poetic consciousness,’ Robert Graves argued that the original function of the poet was to write hymns for the archaic matriarchal ‘Triple Goddess’ of Northern Europe and the Mediterranean. Archaeologists have found around 30,000 goddess figurines that, in dating as far back as 20,000 BC, represent some of the earliest relics of human art and culture throughout Eastern Europe, Turkey, Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. Hughes was influenced by the work of Carl Jung, Robert Graves, W B Yeats, Mircea Eliade and Paul Radin, and he employed anthropological and psychological registers interchangeably to describe the creative process. He believed all forms of art were a natural healing process that employed the psychic equivalent of the immune system. At times he described the creative process as a form of Jungian ‘individuation’, through which the contents of the individual’s personal and collective unconscious are made conscious, through the experience of archetypes, providing the psyche with a sense of wholeness, meaning and purpose. At others, he compared the role of the poet to that of the shamanic healer of primitive tribes who descended into the underworld to recover a sick man’s soul, or to perform some task to resolve a crisis afflicting his tribe. Essentially, he understood the poet as performing a quasi-religious function in providing a healing image that reconnected man with his inner self and nature. Education: After high school, Hughes entered the Royal Air Force and served for two years as a ground wireless mechanic. He then moved to Cambridge to attend Pembroke College on an academic scholarship. While in college he published a few poems, majored in Anthropology and Archaeology, and studied mythologies extensively. Hughes graduated from Cambridge in 1954. A few years later, in 1956, he cofounded the literary magazine St. Botolph’s Review with a handful of other editors. Hughes taught at University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Relationship/Marriage To Sylvia Plath: The couple married on June 16, 1956, at St George the Martyr, Holborn) with Plath's mother in attendance, and spent their honeymoon in Benidorm, Spain. During this time, they both became deeply interested in astrology and the supernatural, using Ouija boards. In early 1957, Plath and Hughes moved to the United States and from September 1957 Plath taught at Smith College, her alma mater. Plath took a job as a receptionist in the psychiatric unit of Massachusetts General Hospital and in the evening sat in on creative writing seminars given by poet Robert Lowell. Both Lowell and Sexton encouraged Plath to write from her experience and she did so. She openly discussed her depression with Lowell and her suicide attempts with Sexton, who led her to write from a more female perspective. Plath began to conceive of herself as a more serious, focused poet and short-story writer. At this time Plath and Hughes first met the poet W. S. Merwin, who admired their work and was to remain a lifelong friend. Plath resumed psychoanalytic treatment in December, working with Ruth Beuscher. Plath and Hughes traveled across Canada and the United States, staying at the Yaddo artist colony in Saratoga Springs, New York State in late 1959. The couple moved back to England in December 1959 and lived in London at 3 Chalcot Square, near the Primrose Hill area of Regent's Park, where an English Heritage plaque records Plath's residence. Their daughter Frieda was born on April 1, 1960, and in October, Plath published her first collection of poetry, The Colossus. In February 1961, Plath's second pregnancy ended in miscarriage; several of her poems, including "Parliament Hill Fields", address this event. In August she finished her semi-autobiographical novel The Bell Jar and immediately after this, the family moved to Court Green in the small market town of North Tawton in Devon. Nicholas was born in January 1962. In mid-1962, Hughes began to keep bees, which would be the subject of many Plath poems. In 1961, the couple rented their flat at Chalcot Square to Assia and David Wevill. Hughes was immediately struck with the beautiful Assia, as she was with him. In June 1962, Plath had had a car accident which she described as one of many suicide attempts. In July 1962, Plath discovered Hughes had been having an affair with Assia Wevill and in September the couple separated. “‘Depression killed Sylvia Plath,’ Middlebrook writes, but argues that Plath and Hughes’s marriage was far from a failure.” Relationship to Assia Wevill: In 1961, poets Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath rented their flat in Chalcot Square, Primrose Hill, London to Assia and David Wevill, and took up residence at North Tawton, Devon. Hughes was immediately struck with Assia, as she was with him. Plath noted their chemistry. Soon afterward, Ted and Assia began an affair. At the time of Plath's suicide, Wevill was pregnant with Hughes's child, but she had an abortion soon after Plath's death. The actual relationship, who instigated it, and its circumstances have been hotly debated for many years. After Plath's suicide, Hughes moved Wevill into Court Green , where Wevill helped to care for Hughes's and Plath's two children, Frieda and Nicholas. Wevill was reportedly haunted by Plath's memory; she even began using things that had once belonged to Plath.[8] In a biography of Wevill, Lover of Unreason, the authors maintain that she used Plath's items not out of obsession, but rather for the sake of practicality, as she was maintaining a household for Hughes and his children. On 3 March 1965 at age 37, Wevill gave birth to Alexandra Tatiana Elise, nicknamed "Shura", while still married to David Wevill. Ostracized by her lover's friends and family, and eclipsed by the figure of Plath in public life, Wevill became anxious and suspicious of Hughes's infidelity, which was real enough. He began affairs with Brenda Hedden, a married acquaintance who frequented their home, and Carol Orchard, a nurse 20 years his junior, whom he married in 1970. Wevill's relationship with Hughes was also fraught with complexities, as shown by a collection of his letters to her that have been acquired by Emory University. She was continually distraught at his seeming reluctance to commit to marrying and setting up a home with her, while treating her as a "housekeeper". Most of Hughes's friends indicate that while he never publicly claimed Shura as his daughter, although his sister Olwyn said he did believe the child was his. Infidelity: Poem [View Of A Pig]: The pig lay on a barrow dead. It weighed, they said, as much as three men. Its eyes closed, pink white eyelashes. Its trotters stuck straight out. Such weight and thick pink bulk Set in death seemed not just dead. It was less than lifeless, further off. It was like a sack of wheat. I thumped it without feeling remorse. One feels guilty insulting the dead, Walking on graves. But this pig Did not seem able to accuse. It was too dead. Just so much A poundage of lard and pork. Its last dignity had entirely gone. It was not a figure of fun. Too dead now to pity. To remember its life, din, stronghold Of earthly pleasure as it had been, Seemed a false effort, and off the point. Too deadly factual. Its weight Oppressed me—how could it be moved? And the trouble of cutting it up! The gash in its throat was shocking, but not pathetic. Once I ran at a fair in the noise To catch a greased piglet That was faster and nimbler than a cat, Its squeal was the rending of metal. Pigs must have hot blood, they feel like ovens. Their bite is worse than a horse’s— They chop a half-moon clean out. They eat cinders, dead cats. Distinctions and admirations such As this one was long finished with. I stared at it a long time. They were going to scald it, Scald it and scour it like a doorstep. Shape: • Nine stanzas each stanza consisting of 4 lines each • The poem has a total of 36 lines • This poem has no particular shape. • It has no rhyme scheme. • Lots of pausing because of its punctuation Subject: • The subject of the poem is death. • This poem is about the way that Ted Hughes cannot familiarize with the pig although he tried to see sympathy in its death. He tries to humanize the pig and feel bad for it but he ends up not being able to, and expressing himself in a blunt manner; Bluntly stating that it is “like a sack of wheat” and “Less Than Lifeless”. Audience: • The audience of the anyone willing to read the poem that has an average reading comprehension level because this poem does not require much, other than the understanding of its vocabulary. Purpose and Interpretation: • The purpose of this poem I believe is to show how most of us humans are. The narrator tries to care for the pig and to feel sorry for it but, ends up not doing anything about it and not feeling bad. • This is how us humans “feel bad” abut the killing of all the animals and the conditions that they are raised in, but then we eat them either way. Just like the poem we try to seem like we care but our actions say otherwise. Sound Devices: • • Alliteration: • Its trotters struck straight • Thick pink bulk • Scald it and scour it No rhyming scheme is present. Language • Negative connotation is seen throughout the poem because of the narrator describing the dead pig. • “too dead” ~ which is repeated three times • Monosyllabic words make up the poem with a few polysyllabic words. Literary Techniques • Simile: It was like a sack of wheat • Simile: Pigs must have hot blood, they feel like ovens. • Repetition of “too Dead” • It was too dead. • Too dead now to pity. • Too deadly factual. Point Of View • This poem is in first person point of view. it is a personal narrative; This is seen through the use of the pronoun “I” • “I thumped it without feeling remorse” Tone: • Frustration~ Because he is trying to feel one way and he can’t. It is like if he was arguing with himself about who he is, and the way he is. Imagery • Imagery allows the reader to have a better understanding of what is being discussed. • “Pink white eyelashes” • A poundage of lard and pork • Pigs must have hot blood, they feel like ovens. Critical Interpretations: This poem shows how us humans “feel bad” about the killing of all the animals and the conditions that they are raised in, but then we eat them either way. Just like the poem we try to seem like we care but our actions say otherwise. The poem shows us how we contradict ourselves. • This poem also shows how the narrator is overthinking something very simple. He is overthinking the death of the animal and his views on it. He knows that he is “supposed” to care for it and feel bad, but he does not. This shows how society’s views make us change our own views and we end up not being happy with ourselves because we are not part of the majority. Additional Poem: • “Jaguar” • Both poems can be interpreted to be describing the way that humans are similar to animals, or the way that animalistic actions are also similar to the way we behave. Bibliography: Internet Explorer Google Chrome Book Her Husband by Diane Middlebrook ...
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