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TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA BACHELOR OF DEGREE BUILDING AND CIVIL ENGINEERING INTERNAL ATTATCHMENT REPORT REG NO:BCSE/5908/014
LEVELLING Introduction levelling is the art of determining and representing the relative heights or elevations of different points on the surface of earth.it deals with measurements in a vertical plane. AIM i) to find the elevations of given points with respect to a given or assumed datum ii) to establish points at a given or assumed datum. iii)To determine the difference in vertical distances of different points on the area given to determine the reduced levels of those points where levels have been read Instruments 1. Dumpy level, 2. vertical staff, 3. tripod stand, 4. pegs Procedure Results Backsight I.S foresight rise fall reduced level remarks 2.415 40 TBM 3.075 0.66 39.34 B 0.432 3.520 0.445 380895 C 2.270 1.838 37.057 D 2.642 0.372 36.685 E 0.22 3.350 0.708 35.977 F 1.93 1.71 34.267 G 0.172 2.52 0.59 33.677 H
2.11 1.938 31.739 I 0.785 2.33 0.22 31.519 J 1.295 0.51 31.009 K 1.430 0.135 30.874 L 0.812 1.52 0.09 30.784 M 1.132 0.32 30.464 N Conclusion The land that was levelled was gently sloping from a higher land at the gate which had a temporary bench mark of 40m to point N a man hole at civil block TUM with a height of 30.464m Chain survey Introduction Chaining is the process by which horizontal distances are measured using a chain or tape measure. It involves a leader and a follower. The leader holds the forward handle and the follower remains at the 0 end to direct the leader or be directed by the leader. The readings are recorded on a fild book and after chaining is done they are transferred to a drawing scale. Offsets are taken as points away from the main line they are recorded at right angle to the main line. Main stations are the end of the lines, which command the boundaries of the survey, and the lines joining the main stations re called the main survey line or the chain lines. Subsidiary or the tie stations are the point selected on the main survey lines, where it is necessary to locate the interior detail such as fences, hedges, building etc. A tie line joints two fixed points on the main survey lines. It helps to checking the accuracy of surveying and to locate the interior details. The position of each tie line should be close to some features, such as paths, building etc. A check line also termed as a proof line is a line joining the apex of a triangle to some fixed points on any two sides of a triangle. A check line is measured to check the accuracy of the framework. The length of a check line, as measured on the ground should agree with its length on the plan. Objectives
To chain through an area of land and determine the position of different feature such as the trees and ditch Suitability of Chain Survey Chain survey is suitable in the following cases: 1. Area to be surveyed is comparatively small 2. Ground is fairly level 3. Area is open and 4. Details to be filled up are simple and less.