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CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS AND CODE-SWITCHING: STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING THE STANDARD DIALECT TO VERNACULAR DIALECT SPEAKERS Rebecca WHEELER Résumé Vernacular and standard dialects collide in the school classroom. This paper addresses the collision of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English in the US. Using traditional strategies, teachers assess AAVE features in student reading, writing and speaking as error. In response, teachers correct student grammar, seeking to eradicate the vernacular. However, correction fails to teach Standard English, the dominant dialect. Linguistics explains why and offers successful strategies for teaching Standard English to vernacular speakers. Traditional correctionist techniques mis-assess student language. Vernacular speaking students are not making mistakes in Standard English; they are following the grammar patterns of a different dialect, AAVE. This paper demonstrates how strategies from second language acquisition -- contrastive analysis (CA) and code-switching – productively extend to second dialect acquisition. We demonstrate how to use CA to build on the language of the home, to add the language of the school. In this way we both respect the mother tongue and foster school success for local dialect speakers. Analisi contrastiva e code-switching: Strategie per insegnare il dialetto standard agli studenti che parlano la lingua vernacolare Dialetti vernacolare e lingue standard sono spesso in conflitto nelle aule delle scuole. Il presente articolo affronta la collisione tra il vernacolare inglese afro-americano (AAVE) e l’inglese standard degli Stati Uniti. Utilizzando strategie tradizionali, gli insegnanti valutano le caratteristiche dell’AAVE usato dagli studenti come errori. Gli insegnanti correggono la grammatica degli studenti, cercando di sradicare la loro lingua vernacolare. Tuttavia, queste correzioni non riescono a insegnare il dialetto dominante. La linguistica spiega il perché e offre strategie di successo per l'insegnamento dell'inglese standard a studenti che parlano la lingua vernacolare. Tecniche tradizionali di correzione sottovalutano la lingua dello studente, perché gli studenti che parlano la lingua vernacolare non fanno errori nell’inglese standard, ma seguono invece gli schemi grammaticali di un dialetto diverso, l’AAVE. Quest’articolo dimostra come le strategie di acquisizione della seconda lingua — analisi contrastiva (CA) e code-switching — si estendano all'acquisizione di un secondo dialetto. Dimostriamo quindi come utilizzare CA per sviluppare la lingua usata a casa e poter quindi aggiungere la lingua della scuola. In questo modo si rispetta la lingua materna e si favorisce il successo scolastico per gli studenti che parlano i Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA, USA 1
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diversi dialetti locali.
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Christopher Reinemann
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