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SEXUALITY (LEWIS)Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infectious diseases that are spread through sexual contact with the penis, vagina, anus, mouth, or sexual fluids of an infected person. BACTERIAL:-Chlamydia-Gonorrhea -SyphilisVIRAL:-Genital Herpes: HSV 1 or 2-Genital warts: HPV-HIV leads to AIDS-Hepatitis B and C-MolluscumPARASITIC:-Tricomoniasis-HPV (warts) can be spread by skin to skin contact. -HIV may also be contracted via blood or blood products or be transmitted from mother to baby during pregnancy or labor and deliver. -Some may be spread by autoinaculation, scratching and spreading to other parts of body. -All STI’s have an incubation period, time from infection and showing ofsymptoms. Usually when disease is spread because symptoms aren’t showing. -Surveillance and partner notification are a major part of the effort to prevent and control the spread of STIs (gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia).Factors Affecting Incidence of STIs-Reproductive maturity-Sexual freedom -Incorrect use of barrier method (condoms)-Lack of media emphasis on contraceptives -Lack of resources -Multiple partners
Risk Factors for STIsHigh-Risk Populations• Women• Men who have sex with men• Adolescents and young adults (age <25)• Men and women in correctional facilities• Victims of sexual assault• Substance abuse/drug use High-Risk Behaviors• Having new or multiple sexual partners• Having more than one sexual partner• Having sexual partners who have had multiple partners• Sharing needles used to inject drugs• Alcohol or drug dependence or abuse (inhibits judgment)• Inconsistent or incorrect use of condoms or other barrier methodsHigh-Risk Medical History• Not being vaccinated for STIs that have vaccines• Having one STI is a risk factor for getting anotherFactors Influencing Disparities• Social and economic disadvantages • People who cannot afford ins. • Fear and distrust of Doctors• In ethnic communities where there are a lot of STIs, hard to reduce infection because it’s more common. Condom is #1 besides abstinence. Oral contraceptives don’t block STI’s. STIs Characterized by Discharge, Cervicitis, or UrethritisCHLAMYDIA - most common bacterial infection in USA- Gram negative bacteria transmitted through sexual fluids. - Ejaculation not required to contract. - 1 to 3 weeks incubation. Can be re-infected after treatment. - Common for men is in the urethra (urethritis)- Common for women is cervix (cervicitis) - Both can get in rectum from anal sex. - More common from men to women (vagina is reservoir).
- May not express symptom, if so pain while urinating or urethral discharge in men, pain and swelling in testicles. Women have mucus discharge from cervix, sex pain, bleeding and dysuria (pain peeing).