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080130 section - Announcement Phonology Ling275Lg Language...

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1 Phonology January 30, 2008 Ling275Lg: Language and Mind Announcement The second assignment is on the Blackboard (in the folder ‘assignment’). Due to February 13 , at the beginning of the lab (Don’t be late!) Neither handwritten nor electric submission will be accepted. Registration: do not need to move or de/re-register. Friday is the last day for add/drop Lab slides will be uploaded to Blackboard. Outline More about vowels: how to classify them? Basic notions in phonology Practice in phonology Segmentation and its evidence Various segments: phoneme, syllable, and… Dialects Front vowels [i]: heed [ ]: hid [e] [ ]: head [ æ ]: had [ ], [ ]: [-ATR] Back vowels [u]: who’d [ ]: hood [o] [ ]: but [ ]: caught [ ]: bar [ ], [ ], [ ] : [-ATR] Central vowel [ ]: sofa - Unstressed vowels are usually reduced to [ ] in English.
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2 How to classify vowels Vowels are usually more difficult to transcribe than consonants, since the position of constriction is unclear. In the IPA vowel chart we saw there are three criteria to describe vowels, but in this class – as mentioned in the lecture – let us adopt one more criterion: [+ATR/-ATR] (Advanced Tongue Root) Why ATR? We do not need to introduce ‘fine-grained’ tongue height / jaw openness, so to speak, like ‘close’, ‘close-mid’, ‘open-mid’, and ‘open’, but just [high], [low] and [ATR]. Intuitively, we can describe the difference between [i] and [ ], as well as [u] and [ ] with respect to [ATR] How many /t/s in English? - For some speakers /t/ before the syllabic /n/ becomes [ ] We already saw that /t/ may be pronounced differently in a certain context - In American English /t/ between vowels becomes [ ]. Not the end of the story, however… Is /t/ in ‘top’ the same as /t/ in ‘stop’? - Of course, if they were the same, I’d not ask you this question… - Then how are they different?
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