history final.docx - To what extent and in what ways were...

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To what extent and in what ways were Gandhi’s tactics of non-violent, passive resistance successful in achieving their aims ? Compare and contrast Gandhi’s tactics and their contribution to the struggle for independence in India with those of Vietnam . 1)Intro: Gandhi’s aims: goals of peace, wanted Indian independence from Britain but without causing war/violence, use simple reasoning to gain independence - Gandhi offered moral vision of Indianist, rooted in rural values, draw from different religions - transformed project of small group of upper class Anglosized Indians into a mass political movement -successful at achieving goal: innocent until the end, did not give in to violence and eventually gained their independence -comparing Gandhi and Ho Chi Minh, we can see that they were just passionate individuals who wanted to liberate their countries from destructive international forces - although similar in a few places, they employed very different tactics - Ho chose to go a completely opposite path to Gandhi: he chose violence as means - the results of their tactics will be discussed in this essay 2)The need for Indian cooperation (textbook p 44, 162): - brilliant and simple reasoning: if Indians withdrew their cooperation, British rule could not survive - 200, 000 British officials ruling over 400 million plus Indians - India’s contribution to WWI: 1.4 million Indians to fight on the Western Front for Britain and 100 million pound donation to British government - Needed 2.5 million Indian Volunteers during the second world war - Economic and manpower contribution -helping in the war at the cost of the lives and welfare of Indians - Tata Iron and Steel Company became the largest producer in the empire - Geographical position as the “last bulwark against Japanese expansion” -> India is a massive supply base for regional military operations -conflict that India has nothing to do with, being used without permission 3)What were the tactics: - Movement based upon non- cooperation of ALL Indians - Had to have a moral foundation to be effective: - Ahimsa (non violence) - Satyagraha (opposing injustice with force of truth)
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- Passive disobedience: if law was unjust, one disobeys and suffers the consequences - invite punishment, demonstrate suffering to convince authority of the immorality of their actions Salt March of 1930 : thousands of women scooped up water on the beach and boiled it to get salt - salt tax->big source of state revenue - eliminate British monopoly on salt - to show that salt tax is an unjust burden to the poor -> exactly the people who could not afford it - British arrested 17, 000 women and violently beat many who resisted 1942 , Gandhi drafts a forceful statement for Britain to “Quit India” - calls for removal of all foreign troops from Indian soil - not involved with conflict with Japan - British responded by arresting tens of thousands Congress Party supporters - Gandhi’s Draft Resolution of “Quit India” (page 259- 261) - result of escalation of resistance to British rule - only want freedom from alien domination
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