History 351 notes.docx - History 357 The Time of Liberty...

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History 357 The Time of Liberty- Guardino Chapter 5 Oil and Vinegar: The Construction and Dissolution of Republican Order in the City of Oaxaca Mexico became independent: change name to Oaxaca - Means new political order - Urban elite wants to recover what it lost and consolidate what it gained Focus of chapter: successes and failures of urban elite National sovereignty, with elections based on virtually universal male suffrage, was combined with earlier beliefs about the ends and means of politics -> virulent politics - One group: egalitarianism, federalism, and nationalism - Other group: disorder and social dissolution, and were particularly wary of the danger posed by impiety - Majority of voters are the poor -> each group wants to mobilize their support - Military force limited strength of elections Period after independence was a time of great fluidity in social and especially political life - Whirlwind of civil wars - Guerra: root of problem = incompatibility of modern forms and social structures of collective entities - Guardino: unlikely that clientalism, family cliques, was capable of mobilizing the large number of voters active in Oaxaca 1) Ideologies more important in motivating voters 2) do not adequately address the importance of pluralism in establishing stable elec- toral system Hensel, Silva: collective biography but no mention of party conflict Oaxaca was one of the birthplaces of the Reform, the political move- ment that eventually broke the back of Mexican conservatism and laid the groundwork for the peculiarly liberal forms of authoritarianism - Juarez- governor Religion and Politics
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- Conflict between church and state was crucial to the Reform - Church maintains important presence in Oaxaca, religion basic to politics - Also in everyday life, common denominator in society - Most important tension: patronato- allowed state governors to approve clerical appointments , all new bishops Mexicans Urban Political Culture- political means - Beginning of publication: two different printing presses (govn’t and privately owned) - Newspapers and their editors sometimes paid a heavy price for their exposed political position -govn’t didn’t allow anonymous writers anymore -> went out of business - Pamphlets- tied to events of the day, partisan debates about policy, elections, civil wars, religious sermons, influence public opinion in legal or commercial disputes - Laws publicly proclaimed but politicians believed that literacy was crucial to Mexico’s future - education antidote to barbarism, opportunity to inspire respect for law and authority in the population - budget limited, content of education changed little from colonial period- > arithmetic, political catechism added - But still 90% of pop illiterate, literate lead aloud to illiterate - Political info from sermons, ceremonies (elaborate, expensive), informal convos, cockfights, rumors, theatre - Civic ceremony to sweat allegiance to Constitutive Act in 1824 (federalist blueprint)- adorn lavishly, splendid banquet - Elections another kind of civic ceremony- people conferred power
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