BRAINSTEM.pptx - BRAINSTEM Dr Manisha Hansda OBJECTIVES To...

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BRAINSTEM Dr. Manisha Hansda
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OBJECTIVES To know the external features of the medulla, midbrain and pons. To know the important components and functions of the medulla, midbrain and pons. Association of the Cranial Nerves with the Brainstem. Clinical Correlation
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BRAINSTEM MIDBRAIN PONS MEDULLA
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Functions of the BRAINSTEM Passage to ascending and descending tracts Vital centres Reticular Activating centres Important nuclei of last ten cranial nerves
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ANTERIOR VIEW of THE BRAINSTEM
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SAGITTAL SECTION OF THE BRAIN
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POSTERIOR VIEW of THE BRAINSTEM
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SAGITTAL SECTION of THE BRAINSTEM
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Ventral – Lateral View Midbrain Cerebral peduncles Pons Basis Medulla Pyramid Olive descends throughout movement descends throughout movement ascends throughout arousal
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Vertical Columns of Cranial Nerves
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CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI
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FUNCTIONAL COLUMNS
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Medulla Foramen magnum to the lower border of pons Truncated cone- bulb (bulbar paralysis) Vital centres Last four cranial nerves Lower part of medulla- central canal Upper part- lower part of fourth ventricle Divided into lower closed part and upper open part
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External Features of the Medulla Anterior median fissure Foramen caecum- small triangular depression Lower part of the medulla- decussation of pyramids Posterior median sulcus- lower half of the medulla Posterior median sulcus- splits to form the lower part of the floor of the fourth ventricle Anterolateral sulcus- along the lateral border of the pyramid- 12th nerve Posterolateral sulcus- between the olive and the inferior cerebellar peduncle- 9th, 10th and 11th cranial nerves Anterior, posterior and lateral regions
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External Features of the Medulla (Ventral Aspect) Pyramids 1. Elongated elevations 2. Produced by the corticospinal fibres 3. 75% cross to the opposite side (pyramidal decussation) 4. Descend as lateral corticospinal tract in the lateral white column of the spinal cord (opposite side) 5. 20%- anterior corticospinal tract in the anterior white column of the spinal cord 6. 5%-Descend as lateral corticospinal tract in the lateral white column of the spinal cord (same side) •.
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