POLS 209 Chapter Outlines 6

POLS 209 Chapter Outlines 6 - Argument: David Hume Even the...

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The Rationality of Religious Belief What reasons are there to believe that God or some supernatural force exists? The existence and order of the universe Miracles The very definition of God Meaningfulness in our lives
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If Religious Belief is Unjustified, then Why Do People Believe in God? Karl Marx: religion is our “opium” for dealing with socio-political alienation. God is the abstract idealization of humanity Friedrich Nietzsche: God once was a fixed point of reference, but now not even science or truth is absolute. The death of God forces us to take responsibility for our lives and values (1818-83) (1844-1900)
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The Teleological Argument: Argument from Design/Purpose The order and intricacy of things in the universe make sense only if an ordering and purposive mind is their cause William Paley (1743-1805) Analogy: watch . . universe watchmaker . . universe-maker
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Criticisms of the Teleological
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Unformatted text preview: Argument: David Hume Even the claim that the universe exhibits order is doubtful; it is a human imposition We cannot use analogy in drawing inferences about the universe: we do not experience universes or know that intelligent beings produce them. It all could simply be due to chance Even if we argue analogously, we cannot conclude that its creator is one, wise, good, or still existing (1711-76) Criticism of the Design Argument: Charles Darwin Things in nature exhibit order , but that is not the result of design or purpose Natural selection: things appear orderly because random variations produce adaptive individuals Objection (Fine Tuning Argument): intelligent design accounts for minute beneficial variations Reply: random variations are adapted in ways that subsequently become advantageous (1809-82)...
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POLS 209 Chapter Outlines 6 - Argument: David Hume Even the...

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