PPT_Chapter_28s.ppt - Chapter 28 Medications Copyright 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams Wilkins Drug Nomenclature Chemical name

PPT_Chapter_28s.ppt - Chapter 28 Medications Copyright 2011...

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Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 28 Medications Chapter 28 Medications
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Drug Nomenclature Drug Nomenclature Chemical name: identifies drug’ s atomic and molecular structure Generic name: assigned by the manufacturer that first develops the drug Official name: name by which the drug is identified in official publications United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and National Formulary (NF) Trade name: brand name copyrighted by the company that sells the drug
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Drug Preparations Drug Preparations Oral Capsule, pill, tablet, extended release, elixir, suspension, syrup Topical Liniment, lotion, ointment, suppository, transdermal patch Injectable
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved QuestionQuestionWhich type of drug preparation is a medication in a clear liquid containing water, alcohol, sweeteners, and flavor? A. ElixirB. SuspensionC. SolutionD. Syrup
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved AnswerAnswerAnswer: A. ElixirRationale: An elixir is a medication in a clear liquid containing water, alcohol, sweeteners, and flavor. A suspension contains finely divided, undissolved particles in a liquid medium. A solution is a drug dissolved in another substance. A syrup is medication combined in a water and sugar solution.
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Drug Classifications Drug Classifications Effect on body system Chemical composition Clinical indication or therapeutic action
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Pharmacokinetics (Effect of Body on Drug) Pharmacokinetics (Effect of Body on Drug) Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Factors Affecting Absorption of Medications Factors Affecting Absorption of Medications Route of administration Lipid solubility pH Blood flow Local conditions at the site of administration Drug dosage
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Pharmacodynamics Pharmacodynamics Pharmacodynamics is the process by which drugs alter cell physiology and affect the body. Drugs turn on, turn off, promote, or block responses that are part of the body’ s processes. Drug–receptor interaction occurs when the drug interacts with one or more cellular structures to alter cell function. Drugs may also combine with other molecules in the body to achieve their effect. Other drugs act on the cell membrane or alter the cellular environment to achieve their effect.
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Adverse Drug Effects Adverse Drug Effects Allergic effects: anaphylactic reaction Drug tolerance Toxic effect Idiosyncratic effect Drug interactions: antagonistic and synergistic effects
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Factors Affecting Drug Action Factors Affecting Drug Action Developmental considerations Weight Gender Genetic and cultural factors Psychological factors Pathology Environment Timing of administration
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