181- midterm 1.docx - Lesson 2 Video 6 Observation(epidemiological studies studies where the assignment of subjects is not controlled by the

181- midterm 1.docx - Lesson 2 Video 6...

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Lesson 2 Video 6 Observation (epidemiological) studies: studies where the assignment of subjects is not controlled by the investigator, large group of people - Case control studies: compare people with a specific condition tp other who are otherwise similar except for that condition (cancer vs without cancer – what may have been responsible) o Retrospective: problematic cz you have to go back (what do you eat, what’s your diet, did you smoke) - Cohort Study: study of a group of people over a long period of time to determine which factors may be associated with the appearance of a specific condition, before the condition has developed and you follow them for a long time o Prospective: stronger study, going ahead, more valid than case control, you don’t have to the problem of people having to remember what they did in the past Ex: EPIC study : relationship between diet and cancer; increase fruits and vegetables reduce cancer? wasn’t proven Epidemiological studies give the information about the relationship or association between to two factors = correlation. It does not give us causation for that we need: Intervention Study: assignment of subject is controlled by investigator (more focused and studied) - Interventional Controlled Study : double blinded randomized placebo controlled study (best and ultimate study you can get) o Placebo response: when people believe the drug will make them get better (psychological) o Blind study : divide group 2 (one gets placebo one gets new drug) and they don’t know which is which o Double blind study : researcher doesn’t know which group has which either o Randomized : people in the two groups are totally random ( no other factors will come into the picture) Meta Analysis: - Pools epidemiological studies or a bunch or randomized/interventional studies to get a good result / conclude
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Vitamins II Video 1 Vitamin A - Discovered my Elmer Mccloum : fat soluble factor A that was required for rat. Animals fed butter fat and egg yolk thrived and those on lard and olive oil died. Why? they had Vitamin A (many interchangeable compounds/ different forms) - Found in animal foods (like liver) but you don’t have to eat animal food o Provitamine A ( Cartenoids ) give rise to Vitamin A in the body - 1 IU (international units) = to 0.3 mg of retinol(preformed vitamin A in meat) or 0.6 mg of beta carotene= precursor of Vitamin A o so the amount of Vitamin A you get is the same whether from retinol or beta cartnene ( because you need a large intake of beta carotene than retinol) - Benefits: o bone grown, reproduction and immune system health o helps the skin and muous membranes repel bacteria viruses more effectively o essential to healthy visions, and may slow down declining retinal function in people with retinitis pigmentosa - Night vision is a give a way of deficiency in Vitamin A so eating carrots would do the job - Affects many children (blindness, death cz of immune function) over 600 thousands every year in developing contries - How to increase intake of Vitamin A?
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