Study Guide MT2

Study Guide MT2 - Key terms for Midterm 2, 3/29/2007 1....

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Key terms for Midterm 2, 3/29/2007 1. general principles of Darwinian evolution Evolution consists of two basic types of processes: those that introduce new genetic variation into a population, and those that affect the frequencies of existing genes. Random copying errors in genetic material (mutations), migration between populations (gene flow), and the reshuffling of genes during sexual reproduction (genetic recombination) create variation in organisms. 2. selective breeding of “dachshunds” the intentional mating of two animals in an attempt to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or for the elimination of a trait 3. sustainable development any construction that can be maintained over time without damaging the environment; development balancing near-term interests with the protection of the interests of future generations 4. definition of species a class of individuals having some common characteristics or qualities; distinct sort or kind. Biology. the major subdivision of a genus or subgenus, regarded as the basic category of biological classification, composed of related individuals that resemble one another, are able to breed among themselves, but are not able to breed with members of another species. 5. replicator The site on a bacterial genome where replication begins. 6. survival machine d all organisms should be considered as the protection genes construct to survive their surroundings in order to propagate. The surroundings in which the survival machine has to exist includes both environmental and social conditions. Environmental examples: Genes that create a survival machine with thick fur are more likely to survive and propagate in cold climates. Social examples: Genes that create a survival machine with a tendency to care for its young are more likely to survive and propagate. 7. speciation Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. There are four modes of natural speciation, based on the extent to which speciating populations are geographically isolated from one another: allopatric, peripatric, parapatric, and sympatric. Speciation may
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also be induced artificially, through animal husbandry or laboratory experiments. 8. gene and its products 9. mutations a sudden departure from the parent type in one or more heritable characteristics, caused by a change in a gene or a chromosome. an individual, species, or the like, resulting from such a departure. 10. gene pool The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. A large gene pool indicates extensive genetic diversity, which is associated with robust populations that can survive bouts of intense selection. Meanwhile, low genetic diversity (see inbreeding and population bottlenecks) can cause reduced biological fitness and an increased chance of extinction. 11. natural selection
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Study Guide MT2 - Key terms for Midterm 2, 3/29/2007 1....

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