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Unformatted text preview: Shame FEAR Holiness JUSTI CE THE GOOD VI SI BLE REALM I NTELLI GI BLE REALM Knowledge of shadows hadows—delusions/illusions derstanding, day-to-day knowledge, real things Perception Understanding Mathematical objects For ms (ideas) Reason (dialectic) What is Philosophy? • Involves a lot of questions • Philosophy = no assumptions. Rather, asks question about why we should assume ⇒ Metaphysics asking questions that go beyond physics and the ability of science Example: “Is there a God?” –can’t use experiments to answer • Asks the BIG questions • Different from science and religion • Philosophy acknowledges human ignorance • Teaches you to think for yourself ⇒ Ph lia ī Greek word for Love (friendship kind) + Soph a ī Greek word for wisdom =Philosophy Love of Wisdom = Philosopher yearns for wisdom, but does not have what he or she seeks Branches of Philosophy • Ethics right/wrong; good/bad in a systematic way • Metaphysics going beyond sciene, asks questions that goes beyond science ⇒ Example: “What is the nature of space and time? Real or human projections?” • Logic the rules of correct argument • Aesthetics Concerns nature of art & beauty ⇒ Example: “Is beauty objective or subjective?” • Epistemology theory of knowledge ⇒ Example: “How do you know that you are not dreaming?” Why Study Philosophy? • Thinking for yourself is VERY important • “What does it mean to live a good life?” = philosophic question that we all should be asking “An unexamined life is not worth living.” -Socrates Early Philosophers • Ar istotle ⇒ Pupil of Plato who was a pupil of Socrates Gives us history of philosophy According to Aristotle, the first philosopher was Thales (ThAlees) • Thales—624 -> 546 B.C.E. ⇒ Amateur scientist predicted an eclipse, soldier He said “ Everything is water.” This made him a philosopher ^ Is a philosophic statement because he t ries to go beyond what experience tells us and t ries to explain our experiences Perhaps answers “ What is being?” For Thales, water is the fundamental substance that underlies everything • Heraclitus—fl.(ourishing) 504 B.C.E ⇒ Said “ Everything is fire” Fi re captures the reality that everything is in flux; f lux= flicker of flame; fire captures the nature of being Need opposite poles to maintain the f lame; flickering flame = the continuat ion of universe Offers a solut ion to “ The Problem of Evil” • Pythagoras ⇒ Philosopher, mathematician, possible musician ⇒ Said that numbers are the key to the universe o Preserve rat io 6:8:12 o 6 12 = octave 8-> 12 = 5 th 6->8 = 4...
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