CHAP - pCHAP. 2: VICTIMIZATION AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR...

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pCHAP. 2: VICTIMIZATION AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR VICTIMOLOGY 1) WHO? 2) IMPACT? 3) WHAT HAPPENS IN THE CJ SYSTEM? 4) ROLE IN CAUSING CRIME WHO? DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS = LIFESTYLE CHART  P. 41 WIDE VARIATIONS AMONG GROUPS TEENAGE BLACK FEMALES = HIGHEST RISK (URBAN; LIFESTYLE) RACE IS IMPORTANT FACTOR IN RISK MOST VIOLENT CRIME IS INTRARACIAL (3/4) GENERALLY: RACE, INCOME, URBAN ARE KEY. AlSO: CONDITION OF NEIGHBORHOOD, ATTITUDES, OPPORTUNITIES FOR CRIME,  DEGREE OF SOCIAL CONTROL STRANGER VS ACQUAINTANCE FREQUENCY DIFFERS WITH TYPE OF CRIME (E.G. ROBBERY VS SEXUAL  ASSAULT) IMPACT OF CRIME VERY BROAD: TAXES, PRICE OF GOODS, FEAR, ETC. COSTS: ECONOMIC (PUBLIC AND PRIVATE), PSYCHOLOGICAL, ETC. (MID-1990s and 2000 DATA) TANGIBLE = $105 BILLION/YR. INTANGIBLE = $450 BILLION/YR. CJ SYSTEM = $167 BILLION/YR. INCREASES SINCE 9/11, ESPECIALLY FEDERAL LEVEL EXCLUDED!! FROM STUDY WERE COSTS FROM OCCUPATIONAL AND ORGANIZED  CRIME TO CONSUMERS: ECONOMIC CRIME = $200 BILLION/YR!! BUSINESS SPENDING ON PVT. SECURITY = $103 BILLION/YR. EXPERIENCE OF VICTIMS IN THE CJ SYSTEM ROLE OF VICTIMS WITHIN SYSTEM - HISTORICAL VIEW
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RECENT REFORMS: STATUTES, CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT PROPOSED (BILL OF RIGHTS), 20 STATES AMENDED CONSTITUTIONS, POLICY CHANGES ON LOCAL LEVEL OTHER RELATED LEGAL ISSUES: RESTITUTION, CIVIL SUIT (PROBLEMS) PROGRAMS =E.G.  COMPENSATION FUND CRIMINOLOGY THEORY(causes and prevention of crime) I.  EARLY VIEWS OF CRIME II.  CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHT (mid-18th century to late 19th century) =Most people have the potential to commit crime, which is a product of free will =Crime is rational behavior that comes about through a process of weighing costs and benefits =Fear of punishment keeps most people from committing crime =Laws and punishments must be known to the public RENEWAL OF CLASSICAL VIEW (NEOCLASSICAL) (recently) =Rational choice theory (sentencing reform, greater use of prison) =Law and economics III.  POSITIVIST SCHOOL OF THOUGHT (BEGIN LATE 19TH CENT.) Generally =Human behavior is controlled by physical, mental, and social factors, not free will =Criminals are different from noncriminals =Use of science to discover causes of crime and design crime prevention strategies A.  BIOLOGICAL THEORIES (around 1900) =Criminals are born =Emphasis on physical traits =Traits are acquired through heredity or through alcoholism and various diseases =Study of families =Resulted in sterilization laws in several states (supreme court upheld) =After WWII attacked as racist (mirrored Nazism too heavily) =Some renewed interest now, although only one factor among many (i.e,
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course ISS 215 taught by Professor Lang during the Fall '06 term at Michigan State University.

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CHAP - pCHAP. 2: VICTIMIZATION AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR...

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