CHEM 181: TOPIC 9 – DIET AND DISEASE Lesson 1: Diet and Cancer Video 1: Cancer Factors Causes of Cancer: o Diet and Obesity 30-35% o Tobacco 20-30% o Infections 15-20% o Radiation 10% o Pollution 3-5% o Alcohol/Sexual 3-5% o Genetics 5-10% Genetics: o Identical twins are genetically different (although differences can be minimal) o 45,000 pairs of twins – 10,000 cancers – some showed heritable factors o 1% unmistakable hereditary and 15% major component hereditary o Prostate cancer high percentage of heritability Video 2: Cancer and Treatments Cancer – Latin word for “crab” (because tumors look like crabs) More than half a million people in US die of cancer every year (1500 a day) There is not cancer epidemic Breast cancer rates are decreasing (especially after stoppage in use of estrogen supplements) Believed that 30-40% of cancers can be prevented (4 million cases): o Five or more servings of fruit a day lowered the risk of prostate cancer by 50% o 2,000Mg a day of calcium increased risk of advanced prostate cancer by 300% o Missed translation about Soursop (or Graviola) that make people think lemons are 1000 times stronger than chemo o Buddhist monk claims that potato juice can help treat cancer Video 3: Cancer and Treatments Betel Nuts o Common to chew in Asia – can cause mouth cancer Alcohol increases the risk of cancers in: o The mouth, larynx, esophagus, liver, and breast Associations o Meat intake on colorectal cancer in Japan? o Many studies show that meat and cancer are associated
CHEM 181: TOPIC 9 – DIET AND DISEASE Mean Carcinogens o Heterocyclic Amines o Benzopyrene o Nitrites in processed meats Recall Studies o People answer question based on previous actions Cohort Study o One group of subject that have been followed for years o After 10 years, those with the highest consumption of carotenoid containing foods had 20-25% reduced risk of lung cancer o Parallel with a decrease in meat o Cannot derive conclusion from test type Case Control Study o Group of patients selected with certain disease and are compared to certain controls (those without the disease but similar otherwise) o Patients with pancreatic cancer were more likely to have consumed more smoked and fried food and far less raw fruits and vegetables o When you fry potatoes you introduce 4-hydrocy-trans-2-nonenal (forms when polyunsaturated fats are heated) – linked with heart disease, stroke, …cancer. Carcinogens o Percival Pott – 1714-1788 o Chimeny sweep’s carcinoma (cancer caused by the accumulation of soot) o A carcinogen is a substance that causes some sort of cancer in some animal at some dose o Coffee contains about 10mg of known carcinogens o Furfural – a carcinogen found in coffee – 200mg per kg of body weigh in rodent can cause cancer o 6000 loafs of bread to reach cancerous amount Video 4: Carcinogens Acrylamide – a carcinogen o Discovered in a dark tunnel in Sweden o Dr. Margareta Tornquist o Found traces in French fries – forms naturally when heated to high temp o
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- Spring '11
- Nutrition, Atherosclerosis