EDF3110 Exam #2.docx - Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Chubby Baby to Slim Child Body growth slows and proportions shift

EDF3110 Exam #2.docx - Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive...

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Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Chubby Baby to Slim Child Body growth slows and proportions shift o Thinner o Balance improves Individual differences in size become more apparent Skeletal growth continues o New growth centers (epiphyses) o Lose baby teeth Brain Development Cognitive capacities are localized (specific regions of the brain related to specific functions) in the brain Left hemisphere o Language skills o Handedness Right hemisphere o Spatial skills Links among parts of brain increase o Cerebellum (motor function) o Reticular formation (sustain and control attention) o Hippocampus (memory and understanding) o Corpus callosum Handedness Dominant cerebral hemisphere o Right handed (90%): language housed in left hemisphere o Left handed (10%): often shared by both hemispheres Influences by: o Genetics o Practice o Cultural variation in schooling o Prenatal or early damage to left-hemisphere (teratogens) Influences on Physical growth and Health Heredity and hormones (pituitary gland) o Growth hormone (coordinate development of body tissues) o Thyroid-stimulating hormone (support brain development) Nutrition Infectious disease and malnutrition Childhood injuries Nutrition
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Appetite decreases as growth slows Wariness of new food is adaptive Need high-quality diet in smaller quantities Imitates others’ food choices (parents/caregivers to model) Poor-quality diet associated with tooth decay, obesity, cognitive defects, and behavior problems Infectious Disease and Malnutrition 5.9 mil deaths (98% developing world, 50% infectious diseases) Poor diet can depress immune system Illness reduces appetite Hinders physical growth and cognitive development Diarrhea concern in developing countries o Stunted growth from dehydration o 1 mil childhood deaths each year o Helped by oral rehydration therapy (glucose, salt, and water) and zinc (supports healthy immune functioning) supplements Immunizations 17% of preschoolers lack immunizations, 22% in poverty inclined due to lack of health care resources Many children in U.S. lack immunizations: o Cost o Parent’s stressful lives o Misconceptions about vaccine safety (autism, correlation doesn’t equal causation) o Parents’ religious or philosophical objections Unintentional Childhood Injuries Mostly auto or traffic accidents Leading cause of childhood death in industrialized nations Factors relating to childhood injuries: o Gender and temperament (boys have higher rates of being impulses due to testosterone) o Poverty o Single parenthood o Low parental education o Societal conditions (shortage of high quality child care, teen parents, overcrowding in neighborhoods) Motor Skills Gross Motor Skills Balance improves Smooth and rhythmic gait
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Upper and lower body skills become more refined Greater speed and endurance Fine-Motor Skills Self-help skills Drawing Printing Progression of Drawing Skills
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