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Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early ChildhoodChubby Baby to Slim ChildBody growth slows and proportions shiftoThinner oBalance improvesIndividual differences in size become more apparentSkeletal growth continuesoNew growth centers (epiphyses)oLose baby teethBrain DevelopmentCognitive capacities are localized (specific regions of the brain related to specific functions) in the brainLeft hemisphere oLanguage skillsoHandednessRight hemisphereoSpatial skillsLinks among parts of brain increaseoCerebellum (motor function)oReticular formation (sustain and control attention)oHippocampus (memory and understanding)oCorpus callosumHandednessDominant cerebral hemisphereoRight handed (90%): language housed in left hemisphereoLeft handed (10%): often shared by both hemispheresInfluences by:oGeneticsoPracticeoCultural variation in schoolingoPrenatal or early damage to left-hemisphere (teratogens)Influences on Physical growth and HealthHeredity and hormones (pituitary gland)oGrowth hormone (coordinate development of body tissues)oThyroid-stimulating hormone (support brain development)NutritionInfectious disease and malnutritionChildhood injuriesNutrition
Appetite decreases as growth slows Wariness of new food is adaptiveNeed high-quality diet in smaller quantitiesImitates others’ food choices (parents/caregivers to model)Poor-quality diet associated with tooth decay, obesity, cognitive defects, and behavior problemsInfectious Disease and Malnutrition5.9 mil deaths (98% developing world, 50% infectious diseases)Poor diet can depress immune systemIllness reduces appetiteHinders physical growth and cognitive developmentDiarrhea concern in developing countriesoStunted growth from dehydrationo1 mil childhood deaths each yearoHelped by oral rehydration therapy (glucose, salt, and water) andzinc (supports healthy immune functioning) supplementsImmunizations17% of preschoolers lack immunizations, 22% in poverty inclined due to lack of health care resourcesMany children in U.S. lack immunizations:oCostoParent’s stressful livesoMisconceptions about vaccine safety (autism, correlation doesn’t equal causation)oParents’ religious or philosophical objections Unintentional Childhood InjuriesMostly auto or traffic accidents Leading cause of childhood death in industrialized nationsFactors relating to childhood injuries:oGender and temperament (boys have higher rates of being impulses due to testosterone)oPovertyoSingle parenthoodoLow parental educationoSocietal conditions (shortage of high quality child care, teen parents, overcrowding in neighborhoods) Motor SkillsGross Motor SkillsBalance improvesSmooth and rhythmic gait
Upper and lower body skills become more refinedGreater speed and enduranceFine-Motor SkillsSelf-help skillsDrawing PrintingProgression of Drawing Skills