Lab 2 notes - Lab 2 Minerals 1 Minerals Importance...

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Lab 2 Minerals 1. Minerals: Importance: mineral->rock->solid earth; natural material for inorganic industrial manufactures; the products of minerals are in our everyday life (glass, metal, salt, gemstone, pencil lead, etc.) 2. Definition : Inorganic solid, naturally occurring, ordered internal molecular structure., characteristic chemical composition, They are the building blocks of the rocks. Rock: aggregates of one or more minerals. 3. Physical propertie s: caused by the crystalline structure and chemical composition of minerals. Color (most noticeable but least reliable): dark, light, colorless; Clarity : transparent (clear), translucent (foggy), opaque (impervious to light) Crystal form/ Habit : geometric shapes. Habit: characteristic crystal form of a mineral Luster : how light reflect from the surface of a mineral: metallic and non metallic. Exposed surface of metallic minerals will tarnish or weather to a dull or earthy luster, like old coins. (Fig. 3.5, 3.6 on the lab manual) Hardness : resistance to scratching. Harder substance can scratch softer one. Mohs Scale of Hardness : using ten minerals as reference for relative hardness (from soft to hard: talc, gypsum, calcite, fluorite, apatite, orthoclase, quartz, topaz, corundum, diamond); <5.5: soft minerals; >5.5 hard minerals ; hardness of common objects: fingernail (2.5), penny coin (3.5), wire nail (4.5), glass (5.5), streak plate (6.5) . If a mineral’s hardness is between 2.5 and 6.5, you need to minimize the range, e.g. about 5. If greater than 6.5 or smaller than 2.5, you can just put >6.5 or <2.5 because we have no other measurements to test in the lab.
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