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Notes pt 1 - CLST 275 Notes Pt 1 Background cities...

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CLST 275 Notes Pt 1 1/15/08 Background - cities separated by mountains - lots of water – make them meet new people - do not identify with other cities - Crete- first civilization to develop in Greece - Heinrich S. Chliemann: “Father of Archeology” 1/17/08 Athenian Pre-History *Not very much evidence - Greek geography: - cities independent from each other - contact with older civilizations from near East - foreign influence (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoencia), farming, alphabetical literacy, Religion, Art Bronze Age Civilizations in Greece 1. Minoan on Crete (ca. 2700-1450 BCE) a. Wrote “Linear A”, not Greek b. Traders c. “Palace” society 2. Mycenean on mainland (ca. 1600-1100 BCE) a. Warriors (conquered Minoans) b. Greeks Dark Age (1100-800 BCE) - Start of the Iron Age - Characteristics: o Lost contact with foreign countries o Literacy disappears o Famine and depopulation o No political organization o Ecological disaster (cause??) o “Dorian invastion” - End of Dark Age o Learned alphabetical writing from Phoenicians o Cultural renaissance and unity (Homeric Epic: Iliad and Oddessy; Olympics begin in 776) o Change in political structure
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Palace societies gone Emergence of the POLIS (city-state, meaning: government and state of mind) Why Athens? - Western Civilizaiton begins with Greece - Athens dominated much of Greek history - We have more information about Athens - Innovators (Democracy, Theater, Philosophy) Types of Evicence - Literature (history, Oratory, Drama, Pausanis- “descriptions of Greece” 150CE) - Inscriptions (over 7500 from Athens) - Archeology (esp. Agora and Acropolis) Cylonian Affair - 1 st Athenian history we can DATE - Failed aristocratic coup by Cylon (a nobleman and Olympic Champion - Took refuge in temple of Athenia on Acropolis Draco’s Law Code - Established 621 BCE - First written constitution of Athens - Very harsh (esp. for poor people) - Famous for homicide laws Athenian View on their own past - Legendary founder- Thesieus - Synoikismos (dwelling together) - Story of Crete and the minotaur (reflects real liberation from Crete?) - Autochthony- “born from the earth itself” (belief that Athenians came from the land) o whereas other Greeks moved from elsewhere o believed the Dorians theft them alone o sense of superiority o “mother earth” metaphor 1/22/08 Six-Century Athens (500s BCE) The Age of Solon and Peisistratos Solon - ca. 638-558 BCE - Elected eponymous archon in 594/93 o Chief executive
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- Given sole authority to reform Athens - Famous poet o Important source of info Background to Solon’s Reforms - Sharecropping system- economic divide, enslavement of debtors o Owners of small farms couldn’t sell them - Aristocrats dominate government o Areopagus = only deliberative council o Areopagus consists ofall former magistrates o All magistrates come from the highest class o Citizens assembly manipulated by nobles Poorest citizens denied participation Solon’s Reforms: Economic - Seisachtheia = “shaking off of burdens” o Debts are forgiven o Debtors no longer enslaves (applied retroactively) - Fathers legally required to find a trade for sons (or forfeit are in old age) -
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