3GPP_Rel_13_15_Final_to_Upload_2.14.17_AB.pdf - HH 2 3 4 5 1 INTRODUCTION The mobile wireless industry has made momentous progress over the last several

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Unformatted text preview: HH 2 3 4 5 1 INTRODUCTION The mobile wireless industry has made momentous progress over the last several years as for the firsttime LTE has brought together the entire mobile industry, evolving deployments to a single technology, enabling an ecosystem larger than ever before. Already almost a quarter of all global mobile subscribers are using Long Term Evolution (LTE) and it’s expected that by 2021 this will increase to more than half. While LTE deployments continue to expand, and grow across the world, certain regions such as Korea, Japan, China and the U.S. have nearly reached or exceeded 90 percent penetration of LTE. This has led to focus in the mobile industry towards 5th Generation (5G) mobile technology, standards development, demos and trials. There continues to be growing demands for higher throughputs and more data capacity, particularly for video, to provide better broadband services. But this is just one of the drivers for 5G. In addition, 5G is targeted to address new vertical markets including massive machine type communications (mMTC), ultra-reliable low latency communication and a broad range of Internet of Things (IoT) applications in general. Given the continued focus on LTE deployment and the parallel industry effort to define 5G, 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has been actively working both tracks. The 3GPP Release-13 (Rel-13) specifications were completed in March-June of 2016, and focused on further enhancements to LTE and the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) in areas such as active antennas, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO), Self-Organizing Networks (SON also called Self-Optimizing Networks), Carrier Aggregation (CA) & Dual Connectivity (DC), LTE in unlicensed spectrum (Licensed Assisted Access or LAA), interworking/aggregation between WLAN and LTE (LTE-WLAN Aggregation or LWA and LTE-WLAN IP aggregation or LWIP), Machine Type Communications (MTC), Narrow Band IoT (NB-IoT), Proximity Services (ProSe) and Device-to-Device (D2D) Communication and Public Safety. The rich feature content for LTE in Rel-13 demonstrates the strong demand for continued enhancements to not only improve throughput/capacity with LTE, but also to extend the application of LTE, such LTE use in unlicensed spectrum and LTE solutions for new verticals/IoT. And the evolution of LTE does not stop with Rel-13 as there are also many significant LTE features already being worked on as part of Rel-14 including further MIMO enhancements, CA enhancements, enhanced LAA (eLAA), enhanced LWA (eLWA), Voice over LTE (VoLTE) enhancements and enhancements to Proximity Services / Device to Device (ProSe/D2D). With LTE now on its 7th release of specifications and approaching a decade since its initial specification in Rel-8, the industry is now focusing on defining the 5th Generation mobile wireless technology and architecture. As in the past, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is providing guidance, requirements and recommendations that are setting the stage for this next generation of mobile wireless technologies. Just like the ITU defined International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) to drive towards Third Generation (3G), and IMT-Advanced to drive towards Fourth Generation (4G), the ITU now is defining IMT-2020 to drive towards 5G specification. As the name implies the IMT-2020 process is targeted to define requirements, accept technology proposals, evaluate the proposals and certify those that meet the IMT-2020 requirements, all by the 2020 timeframe. This however, requires that 3GPP start now on discussing technologies and system architectures that will be needed to meet the IMT-2020 requirements. 3GPP has done just that by defining a two phased 5G work program starting with study items in Rel-14 followed by two releases of normative specs spanning Rel-15 and Rel-16 with the goal being that Rel-16 includes everything needed to meet IMT-2020 requirements and that it will be completed in time for submission to the IMT-2020 process for certification. The 5G work in 3GPP on Rel-14 study items is well underway and focused on both new Radio Access Network (RAN) technologies and new System Architecture (SA) aspects. The studies on new RAN technologies for 5G are called New Radio (NR) in the 3GPP RAN working groups and are focused on 6 defining a new radio access flexible enough to support a much wider range of frequency bands from <6 GHz to millimeter wave (mmWave) bands as high as 100 Gigahertz (GHz). Given this wide range of carrier frequencies that must be supported, it is expected that Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) will be the basis for the 5G NR air interface. All new, state-of-the-art frame structures, coding, modulation, MIMO, beamforming, etc. technologies are being investigated as part of the 5G NR study item. Given this is the first 3GPP technology targeted at providing optimized performance in the mmWave bands, much of the focus in 3GPP 5G NR is on channel modeling and radio access features designed to address the quasioptic nature of mmWave communications. In parallel, the System Architecture (SA) groups in 3GPP have been busy studying the Services and Markets Technology Enablers (the SMARTER study) that will drive the next generation system architecture, which has led to design principles, requirements and target deployment scenarios for the 5G network architecture. This has led to the identification of many key issues that need to be addressed as part of defining the 5G network architecture such as the support for Network Slicing, Quality of Service (QoS), Mobility and Session Management, Policy, Security and more. This paper provides a detailed status of all the work in 3GPP on the abovementioned LTE enhancements and studies towards definition of the radio access and system architecture for 5G. Section 2 begins with a global look at the trends and drivers for continued evolution of LTE and definition and specification of a new 5G technology. Section 3 provides details of the enhancements provided in 3GPP Rel-13, which primarily focuses on RAN and network level enhancement for LTE and the EPC but also includes some enhancements for HSPA+. Section 4 then discussion the IMT-2020 role and process towards driving the definition of 5G, and discussed the work program that 3GPP has put in place to study and define the RAN and SA technologies that will be needed to support the IMT-2020 requirements. Section 5 completes the paper with a look at the work to date on Rel-14, covering the studies on 5G NR, the SMARTER studies, the principles, requirements and key issues identified in the 5G system architecture studies and the study and work items for continued LTE enhancement. The 3GPP timeline is shown in Figure 1.1. Figure 1.1. 3GPP RAN Progress on “5G”. 1 1 3GPP Timeline. March 2016. 7 2 GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS, MILESTONES AND STANDARDIZATION By the end of 2015, more than a third of the 7.4 billion people worldwide had access to a Fourth-Generation Long Term Evolution (4G LTE) network, providing them with high-speed services and applications including mobile internet. As LTE deployments continue to accelerate across the globe, it is anticipated that by the end of 2016, LTE coverage will reach about 2.17 billion people. Figure 2.1. 4G LTE World Coverage Map - LTE, WiMAX, HSPA+, 3G, GSM. 2 In addition to the expansion of LTE networks, which number well in excess of 500 worldwide 3, the number of LTE connections is also growing rapidly, more than doubling from 200 million at the end of 2013 to more than half a billion (500 million) at the end of 2014. 4 That number more than doubled again to 1.1 billion at year end 2015 representing 15 percent of all global mobile connections and is forecast to reach 1.7 billion at the end of 2016 for 24 percent of total connections. 5 It has been forecasted by many industry analysts that LTE’s global momentum will continue between now and 2020. Figures 2.2 and 2.3 show the growth of LTE connections and the forecast for LTE’s continued growth through 2021. 2 WorldTimeZone.com, October 2016 LTE, LTE-Advanced & 5G Ecosystem: 2016 – 2030 – Infrastructure, Devices, Operator Services, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts, SNS Research. September 2016. 4 WCIS, Ovum. December 2015. 5 WCIS, Ovum. October 2016. 3 8 Figure 2.2. LTE Connections 2010-2015. 6 Figure 2-3: LTE Forecast 2016-2021. 7 By 2021, LTE is expected to account for nearly 52 percent of global connections. 8 In addition, LTE networks are expected to cover 55 percent of the global population by this point. 9 While GSM represented 49 percent of the global market in 2015, this will decline to 11 percent worldwide in five years. HSPA will nearly double and LTE will more than triple. The shift from 2G is evident; some service providers (e.g., AT&T) have announced sunsetting their 2G networks by 2017 to allow their customers advanced notice to properly plan in areas such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications and other connected devices. The need for service providers to sunset their networks weighs heavily on their available spectrum assets, reframing their spectrum and getting the best efficiencies by using more advanced 4G technology in those limited spectral resources. 6 WCIS, Ovum, October 2016. Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 7 9 202 Figure 2.4. Global Mobile Technology Shares and Subscribers 4Q 2016 – Forecast 4Q 2021. 10 About 46 percent of the global population, 3.4 billion of the world’s 7.3 billion people, had internet connections in 2015. 11 Growth in internet access was driven by developing countries to reach 3 billion mobile internet users by 2015, 12 with two-thirds of those users living in the developing countries. 13 Data traffic from wireless and mobile devices, including both Wi-Fi and cellular connections, will account for two-thirds of total IP traffic by 2020. In 2015, wired devices accounted for the majority of IP traffic at 52 percent. 14 Global IP traffic is expected to increase nearly threefold from 2015 to 2020 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 22 percent; monthly IP traffic will reach 25 GB by 2020, up from 10 GB per capita in 2015. 15 Additionally, smartphone traffic will exceed PC traffic by 2020. 16 The number of mobile data subscriptions is increasing rapidly along with a continuous increase in the average data volume per subscription, driving growth in data traffic. Global mobile data traffic grew by 69 percent in 2014 and reached 2.5 exabytes per month at the end of 2014, up from 1.5 exabytes at the end of 2013. 17 Following are some key observations according to the Cisco VNI Mobile 2016 report: • • • Mobile data traffic will increase eightfold between 2015 and 2020 with a CAGR of 53 percent Global mobile data traffic was 5 percent of total IP traffic in 2015 and will increase to 16 percent by 2010 Globally, the average mobile network connection speed in 2015 was 2.0 Mbps; the average speed will more than double and will be 6.5 Mbps by 2020 10 WCIS, Ovum, April 2015. . October 2016. 12 Global Internet Report 2015, internetsociety.org. 13 Measuring the Information Society Report 2014 launch. ITU, November 2014. 14 VNI, Cisco. Sept 2016. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. 11 10 Ericsson Mobility Report June 2016 revealed that: • • • • In 1Q 2016, there were 7.4 billion mobile subscriptions, 3.7 billion mobile broadband subscriptions and 3.4 billion smartphone subscriptions Subscriptions associated with smartphones continue to increase; during 3Q 2016, the number of smartphone subscriptions will surpass those for basic phones. In 1Q 2016, smartphones accounted for close to 80 percent of all mobile phones sold By 2021 there will be: 9 billion mobile subscriptions, 7.7 billion mobile broadband subscriptions and 6.3 billion smartphone subscriptions Global mobile broadband subscriptions will account for 85 percent of all subscriptions by 2021. Mobile broadband will complement fixed broadband in some segments, and will be the dominant mode of access in others 18 Figure 2.5. Growth of Subscriptions/Lines and Subscribers. 19 North America’s rapid migration to LTE and its leadership role for several years has led to the highest LTE share of subscriptions for this technology in the world—268 million subscriptions and a market share at 2Q 2016 that reached 60 percent. 20 Market share represents the percentage of mobile wireless connections that are LTE technology versus all other mobile technologies. Other leading regions of the world posted market shares of 34 percent in Oceania, Eastern and Southeastern Asia and 30 percent in Western Europe. Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean was also impressive; the region added 55 million new LTE connections in 2Q 2016 achieving a 12 percent share of market—tripling the LTE market share year-overyear from 2Q 2015. 18 The number of fixed broadband users is at least three times the number of fixed broadband connections, due to multiple usage in households, enterprises and public access spots. This is the opposite of the mobile phone situation, where subscription numbers exceed user numbers. 19 Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) subscription not included Source: Ericsson, June 2016. 20 WCIS, Ovum. September 2016. 11 By 2020, LTE will represent nearly 400 million connections or 93 percent of the North American region’s mobile subscriptions, not including Machine-to-Machine (M2M) connections. 21 In another outstanding milestone, the penetration rate of LTE connections to the population of 364 million in North America reached 74 percent. This data compares to Western Europe at 39 percent penetration and Oceania, Eastern and Southeastern Asia with 35 percent penetration. The strong growth in mobile broadband subscriptions in the Latin America region will be driven by economic development and consumer demand. With heavy investment in LTE, Latin America has seen a substantial increase in LTE deployments which numbered 85 commercial networks in 44 countries in September 2016, and subscribers which totaled 82 million at 2Q 2016 having added 55 million LTE connections year-overyear. This may be largely attributed to the spectrum auctions that have occurred throughout the region allowing service providers the ability to offer LTE services to their customers beginning primarily in the densely populated urban cities. LTE is forecast to reach 109 million connections at the end of 2016 (forecast does not include M2M) and a 16 percent share of market. By 2019, LTE will be the dominant technology in the Latin America region with about 46 percent market share and HSPA/WCDMA is expected to have a higher percentage of the market at 39 percent than GSM/EDGE-only subscriptions at 15 percent. 22 Global uptake of LTE continues aggressively. With more than 500 LTE commercial networks deployed 23 the number of LTE connections stood at 1.4 billion at the end of the 2Q 2016 out of the total of 7.5 billion total cellular connections worldwide. There were 684 million new LTE connections year-over-year for a growth rate of 89 percent. 24 LTE connections are forecast to reach close to four billion by the end of 2020, when the market share worldwide for LTE will reach 50 percent. 25 LTE innovations with LTE-Advanced and LTE-Advanced Pro are ongoing. It is significant to note that by September 2016, there were more than 150 LTE-Advanced commercial deployments worldwide. The earliest LTE-Advanced feature deployed by operators is Carrier Aggregation (CA) and more than 150 operators have deployed CA. 26 By 2020, over 50 percent of all LTE subscribers will be supported by LTEAdvanced networks. 27 In November 2016, LTE-Advanced network deployments totaled 166 worldwide of 537 LTE deployments of which 457 LTE deployments are of FDD-only mode. 28 In this section, the global market trends of wireless data are demonstrated by examples of the uptake of mobile broadband applications for consumers and the enterprise, analysts’ predictions for their growth, as well as the introduction of a greater variety of wireless data devices such as smartphones, tablets and M2M or connected devices. In addition, the 3GPP technology commercial milestones achieved by numerous leading operators and manufacturers worldwide on the new standards in Release 99 through Release 15 are outlined. 21 WCIS, Ovum. September 2016. 22 Ibid. 23 LTE, LTE-Advanced & 5G Ecosystem: 2016 – 2030 – Infrastructure, Devices, Operator Services, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts, SNS Research. September 2016. 24 WCIS, Ovum, September 2016. 25 Ibid. 26 LTE, LTE-Advanced & 5G Ecosystem: 2016 – 2030 – Infrastructure, Devices, Operator Services, Verticals, Strategies & Forecasts, SNS Research. September 2016. 27 Ibid. 28 Ericsson Mobility Report, November 2016. 12 2.1 MOBILE DATA GROWTH FORECASTS AND TRENDS Mobile data traffic continues its rapid growth, driven mainly by video and social networking. According to Cisco, overall data traffic is expected to grow eightfold between 2015 and 2020. Monthly data traffic will grow at a CAGR of 53 percent from 2015 to 2020, reaching 30.6 exabytes per month by 2020. 29 Threefourths (75 percent) of the world’s mobile data traffic will be video by 2020. 30 Figure 2.6. Global Mobile Data Traffic 2015 to 2020 31 Cisco reported on the impact of smartphones on data traffic 32: • • • • • Globally, smart devices represented 36 percent of the total 7.9 billion mobile devices and connections in 2015; smart devices, however, accounted for 89 percent of the mobile data traffic (“smart devices” refers to mobile connections that have advanced multimedia/computing capabilities with a minimum of 3G connectivity) In 2015, on an average, a smart device generated 14 times more traffic than a non-smart device Average smartphone usage grew 43 percent in 2015; the average amount of traffic per smartphone in 2015 was 929 MB per month, up from 648 MB per month in 2014 Smartphones (including phablets) represented only 43 percent of total global handsets in use in 2015, but represented 97 percent of total global handset traffic In 2015, the typical smartphone generated 41 times more mobile data traffic (929 MB per month) than the typical basic-feature cell phone (which generated only 23 MB per month of mobile data traffic) In their Mobility Report 2016, Ericsson cites similar data for mobile data traffic 33: • 29 30 About 90% of mobile data traffic will be from smartphones by the end of 2021 Cisco VNI: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update 2015-2020. February 2016. Ibid. 31 Ibid. Ibid. 33 Ericsson Mobility Report. June 2016. 32 13 • • North America is the region in the world with the highest monthly data usage per active smartphone subscription. This trend will continue; in 2021, monthly smartphone data usage per active subscription in North America (22 GB) will be 1.2 times that of Western Europe (18 GB) and 3 times that of Asia Pacific (7 GB) North America and Western Europe currently have a larger share of total traffic volume than their subscription numbers imply. This is due to high penetration of high-end user devices and well built-out WCDMA and LTE networks with affordable packages of large data volumes. This leads to higher data usage per subscription 2.2 WIRELESS DATA REVENUE Total mobile revenues reached more than US$1 trillion in 2015, an increase of 1.8 percent over 2014. However, this represents a significant slowdown over growth rates of the last five to ten years. Limited opportunities in subscriber growth in developing markets, coupled with increased competition and a challenging macro-economic climate in developing markets are presenting a trend toward relatively modest growth, at an annual average of just under 2 percent to 2020. 34 Mobile operators in markets across the world are showing signs that they can monetize the strong growth in data traffic. This is at a key time when revenues from more traditional services are being compromised and operators have significant network investments. By bundling video ...
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  • 3GPP Long Term Evolution, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

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