A Textbook of Agronomy.pdf - A T EXTBOOK O F AGRONOMY B Chandrasekaran K Annadurai E Somasundaram A TEXTBOOK OF AGRONOMY This page intentionally left

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Unformatted text preview: A T EXTBOOK O F AGRONOMY B. Chandrasekaran K. Annadurai E. Somasundaram A TEXTBOOK OF AGRONOMY This page intentionally left blank A TEXTBOOK OF AGRONOMY B. Chandrasekaran B.Sc., M.Sc. (Ag.), Ph.D. Director of Research Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore. K. Annadurai B.Sc., M.Sc. (Ag.), Ph.D. Associate Professor of Agronomy Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Kumulur Tamil Nadu Agricultural University E. Somasundaram B.Sc., M.Sc. (Ag.), Ph.D. Associate Professor of Agronomy Agricultural Research Station Aliyarnagar, Tamil Nadu Copyright © 2010, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to [email protected] ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2859-9 PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLD NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at TAMILNADU AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY COIMBATORE - 641 003, INDIA Dr.C.RAMASAMY, Ph.D. Vice-Chancellor Phone : 0422-431222 / 2431788 Res : 0422-2430887 Fax : 0422-2431672 Grams : Farmvar Email : [email protected] Foreword Agronomy is a science that helps to feed the world. We can call the Agronomy as backbone of all agricultural sciences, because the management of soil and water, with a view to achieving the production potential of high yielding varieties, in green revolution, is exclusively an agronomic domain. It may not be appear as glamorous as nuclear science or atomic energy working miracles but like Ayurvedic medicines, it has the capacity to reach the poorer section of the society to bring out the desired results. Agronomists can be able to synthesise production practices from several fields of specialization. The problem of global food security remains unsolved. The increase in population means a growing demand for food in the world, whereas the essential factors in food production such as cultivated land and fresh water are decreasing continuously. Current trends on world agriculture shows that it is imperative to find a scientific and rational way to develop it, a way that can not only steadily increase the output but also ensure long term sustainable use of resources in the process of promoting agricultural development. At present, there are many comprehensive text books on Agronomy available but this is the book from which one can have at least overview of all aspects of Agronomy. It is clear that young students are suffering from cultural shocks to shift from their environment. Semester system of education of B.Sc.(Ag.), B.Sc.(Horti.), B.Sc.(Home Science), B.Sc.(Forestry) and B.Tech.(Ag. Engg), students are quite dynamic for which the students are to be helped for changeover. We can identify their difficulties for comprehensation of language, non-availability of textbooks for their semester system. There is a need to use simple language. The present book titled “A Text book of Agronomy” suite to the need of students. I am happy that the authors have made painful efforts to write this agronomy book. It covers a wide range of topics. In this connection, publication of the book “A Textbook of Agronomy” by Dr. B. Chandrasekaran, Dr. K. Annadurai and Dr. E. Somasundaram of TNAU, Coimbatore is quite appropriate and timely. I expect that both the students and teachers would benefit immensely from the book contents. In particular, I expect that this book containing 17 chapters covering comprehensively the content of all courses in Agronomy for undergraduate students of B.Sc. (Ag.), B.Tech (Agrl. Engg/FPE/EEE.), B.Sc.(Forestry), B.Sc.(Home Science) and B.Sc.(Horticulture) will be a valuable reference. The authors deserve commendation for their painful efforts and my congratulations to them. I am sure that the publication will prove to be a useful volume for students and teachers. C. RAMASAMY Former Vice-chancellor-TNAU Tamilnadu Agricultural University Coimbatore-641003 (INDIA) This page intentionally left blank Preface “Everyone has inside of him or her, a piece of good news. The good news is, that you don’t know how great you can be!” — Dr. Abdul Kalam The challenges before the Agricultural Scientists of our country today are much more complex than even before. Food production has to be increased to 240 m.t. within the next five years. To achieve the massive target, very little scope and possibility exist in respect of horizontal expansion. Crop production and production technologies for the same are of utmost importance for successful and economic cultivation of field crops. Under these circumstances, important and relevant informations were collected and compiled in a book form titled “A Textbook of Agronomy”. This book is mainly intended for the agronomy courses of graduate students in the field of Agriculture, Horticulture, Home science, Forestry and Agricultural Engineering. It is clear that young students are suffering from cultural shocks to shift from their environment. Semester system of education of B.Sc.(Ag.), B.Sc.(Horti.), B.Sc.(Home Science), B.Sc.(Forestry) and B.Tech.(Ag. Engg.), students are quite dynamic for which the students are to be helped for changeover. We can identify their difficulties for comprehensation of language, non-availability of textbooks for their semester system. There is a need to use simple language. The present book titled “A Text book of Agronomy” suite to the need of students. This book is written in simple understandable language dealing with various subject matters of agronomy. In general, the courses dealt to the graduate students are principles of agronomy, agricultural heritage of India, agricultural meteorology, principles of weed science, irrigation management, dry farming, agronomy of field crops and biofuel crops. This book has been prepared with a specific purpose of importing complete comprehensive information about agronomy and we hope that the students and readers will find this with much utility. We thank all the authors / publishers from which references were collected on various aspects of agronomical aspects. We are sure that this book will serve as valuable text cum reference book to the graduate students of agricultural universities. We profusely thank Dr. C. Ramasamy, Former Vice-Chancellor, TNAU for his encouragement and for providing Foreword. We thank Dr. SP. Palaniappan, Ph.D. (Illinois), FISA (Retd., Director and Dean (Agri.), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore) Natural Resource Consultant and Dr. S. Chelliah, Retd., Director of Research, TNAU, Coimbatore as a guiding force for our efforts. viii PREFACE We thank profusely Dr. K. Alagusundaram, National Fellow (ICAR), Dr. P. Subbaian, Director (ABD) Coimbatore, Dr. S. Ramasamy, Professor (Agronomy), Dr. A. Velayutham, Professor (Agronomy), Dr. S. Sivasamy, Professor (Soil Science and Agricultural chemistry), Dr. N. Natarajan, Professor (Seed Science and Technology), Dr. C. Chinnusamy, Professor (Agronomy), Dr. Jeyanthi Chinnusamy, Professor (Agronomy), Dr. B.J. Pandian, Professor (Agronomy), Dr. M. Dakshinamoorthy, Professor (SS &AC), Dr. R. Jaganathan, Professor and Head (Agricultural Meteorology), Dr. A.Tajuddin, Professor and Head (FMP and Bioenergy), Kumulur, Dr. A. Arokiaraj, Professor of Agronomy (Retd.), Dr. P. Balasubramaniam Associate Professor (SS &AC), Kumulur, Dr. C.R. Chinnamuthu, Associate Professor (Agronomy). Dr. K. Sathiyamoorthi, Professor (Agronomy) and Dr. K. Rajamanickam, Professor and Head, CRS, Aliyasnagar and fellow scientists of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University for their critical comments and suggestions, encouragement and support. We thank Mrs. Kavitha and Mr. Ravikumar of AEC &RI, Kumulur for their sincere efforts in typing the manuscript. In spite of the best efforts, it is possible that some errors may have crept into the compilation. The readers are requested to kindly let us know the mistakes so that these could be taken care of in the further edition. Finally we thank our publishers for bringing out this book so efficiently and promptly. DR. B. CHANDRASEKARAN DR. K. ANNADURAI DR. E. SOMASUNDARAM Contents Foreword v Preface vii 1. An Introduction to Agriculture and Agronomy 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 An Introduction to Agriculture Scope of Agriculture in India Branches of Agriculture Development of Scientific Agriculture 1.3.1 History of Agriculture 1.3.2 Global Agriculture Agriculture in National economy Food Problem in India An Introduction to Agronomy 1.6.1 Agronomist Potential Productivity and Constraints in Crop Production 2. Agricultural Heritage of India 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Pangaea, the Super-continent 2.1.1 Geography of India 2.1.2 Agriculture Heritage in India Development of Human Culture 2.2.1 Genetic History of Modern Man 2.2.2 Development of Human Culture Technological Civilization Indus Civilization 2.4.1 Physical Data 2.4.2 River Migrations in Western India 2.4.3 Saraswati River Civilization 2.4.4 Status of Farmers in Southern India 2.4.5 Advice by Sages to Kings 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 15 18 19 20 22 23 27 29 30 30 31 34 41 41 43 44 54 56 X CONTENTS 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.36 2.37 2.38 2.39 2.4.6 Kautilya’s Arthasastra Agriculture and Sangam Literature of Tamil 2.5.1 Sangam and its History 2.5.2 Tamil Literature—A Bird’s View 2.5.2 Agriculture 2.5.3 Astronomy 2.5.4 Prediction of Monsoon Rains Almanac, Panchang and Krishi-Panchang Methods of Rainfall Forecasts Crops Origin of Crop Plants History of Rice History of Wheat Cultivation History of Sugarcane Cultivation History of Cotton Cultivation Crop Production in Ancient India 2.14.1 Seasons Planting Time and Selection of Land for Different Crops (Kasyapa) Land Preparation Soil as a Basic Resource for Successful Crop Production (Kashyapa) The Plough and Other Implements Seed Collection and Preservation Crop Diversity Choice of Crops and Varieties Rice Varieties–Other Aspects Sequence of Cropping Seed and Sowing Weeds and Weeding Nutrient Management Water Management New Crops and Other Plants Growth Promoters Harvesting and Measuring Yields Storage of Grains Farming Systems Soil Classification Soil Types of India Maintenance of Soil Productivity Water Management Plant Protection Gardening in Ancient and Medieval Period 2.38.1 Arbori–Horticulture, Orchards, History and Diversity of Fruit Crops In India 2.38.2 Important Finds of Fruits from Archaeological Sites 2.38.3 The History of Gardening: A Timeline from Ancient Times to 1600 Vegetable Farming-Floriculture-Perfumes 56 62 62 62 64 71 74 84 87 88 89 93 94 94 95 95 96 97 97 97 98 99 99 100 100 100 101 103 103 103 104 104 105 105 105 107 108 110 112 119 124 126 129 129 130 CONTENTS xi 2.40 2.41 2.42 2.43 2.44 2.45 2.39.1 Vegetable Farming 2.39.2 Floriculture in Ancient India Perfumes Medicinal Plants and Their Relevance Today The Siddha System of Medicine Role of Cattle and Other Domestic Animals Description of Indian Civilization and Agriculture 2.44.1 Indus Valley Civilization Our Journey in Agriculture 2.45.1 Vision for Agriculture in 2020 A.D. 3. Crops and Crop Production 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Classification of Crops 3.1.1 Range of Cultivation 3.1.2 Place of Origin 3.1.3 Botanical/Taxonomical Classification 3.1.4 Commercial Classification 3.1.5 Economic/Agrarian/Agricultural Classification 3.1.6 Seasonal Classification 3.1.7 According to Ontogeny 3.1.8 According to Cultural Requirements of Crops 3.1.9 According to Important Uses Crop adaptation and Distribution 3.2.1 Adaptation 3.2.2 Principles of Plant Distribution 3.2.3 Theories Governing Crop Adaptation and Distribution 3.2.4 Major Crops of Indian Sub-continent 3.2.5 Factors Governing Choice of Crop and Varieties Intensive Cropping 3.3.1 Multiple Cropping 3.3.2 Intercropping 3.3.3 Multistoried Cropping Crop Rotation Cropping Patterns and Cropping Systems Crop Production 3.6.1 Factors Affecting Crop Production 4. Agricultural Meteorology 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Importance Need and Scope Climatology Coordinates of India and Tamil Nadu Atmosphere Climate of India 130 132 135 136 136 144 153 153 158 163 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 173 174 174 174 175 175 178 179 179 179 181 181 182 185 185 200 200 201 202 204 204 208 xii CONTENTS 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 Clouds Monsoon Rainfall Variability Evaporation, Transpiration and Evapotranspiration Hydrologic Cycle Flood Weather Aberrations Agroclimatic Zones Agroclimatic Normal Weather Forecasting Remote Sensing (RS) Crop Weather Modeling Climate Change and Variability 5. Soils 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 210 213 214 216 217 218 220 221 223 228 231 233 238 Soil Phases 5.1.1 Solid Phase 5.1.2 Liquid Phase 5.1.3 Gaseous Phase Properties of Soil 5.2.1 Physical Properties of Soil 5.2.2 Soil/Irrigability Classification 5.2.3 Soil Water or Soil Moisture Soil Classification Major Soils of India 5.4.1 Alluvial Soils (Entisols, Inceptisols and Alfisols) 5.4.2 Black Soils (Entisols, Inceptisols, Vertisols) 5.4.3 Red Soils (Alfisols, Inceptisols, Ultisols) 5.4.4 Laterites and Lateritic Soils (Ultisols, Oxisols, Alfisols) 5.4.5 Desert Soils (Aridisols, Entisols) 5.4.6 Tarai Soils (Mollisols) 5.4.7 Saline and Sodic Soils (Aridisols, Inceptisols, Alfisols, Entisols, Vertisols) 5.4.8 Acid Soils Major Soils of Southern India – Tamil Nadu 5.5.1 Black Soils or Vertisol 5.5.2 Laterite Soils 5.5.3 Alluvial Soils or Entisols 5.5.4 Peaty Soils 5.5.5 Problem Soils 5.5.6 Alfisols 5.5.7 Inceptisols 5.5.8 Ultisols Problem Soils 5.6.1 Saline Soils 5.6.2 Alkali Soil (Sodic/Solonetz) 5.6.3 Saline-Alkali Soils 238 240 241 241 241 241 250 253 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 257 257 258 258 258 259 259 259 259 259 259 260 260 260 263 266 CONTENTS xiii 5.7 Soil Productivity Constraints 5.7.1 Physical Constraints 5.7.2 Chemical Constraints 5.7.3 Soil Survey 6. Seasons and Systems of Farming 6.1 6.2 Seasons 6.1.1 Characteristics of Seasons 6.1.2 Crop-wise Seasons 6.1.3 Agronomic Concepts of the Growing Seasons 6.1.4 Effect of Season on Choice of Crops Systems of Farming 267 267 270 276 279 279 280 280 281 282 283 7. Tillage 286 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 286 286 286 287 287 287 288 288 289 289 289 290 290 290 290 291 292 292 292 292 294 296 297 Definition Characteristics of Good Tilth Objectives Types of Tilth Types of Tillage 7.4.1 On Season Tillage 7.4.2 Off Season Tillage 7.4.3 Special Types 7.5 Factors Affecting (intensity and depth of) the Tillage Operations 7.6 Depth of Ploughing 7.7 Number of Ploughing 7.8 Time of Ploughing 7.9 Method of Ploughing 7.10 Modern Concepts of Tillage 7.10.1 Minimum Tillage 7.10.2 Zero Tillage/No Tillage/Chemical Tillage 7.10.3 Stubble Mulch Tillage or Stubble Mulch Farming 7.10.4 Conservation Tillage 7.11 Tillage Implements 7.11.1 Primary Tillage Implements 7.11.2 Secondary Tillage Implements 7.11.3 Inter Cultural Implements 7.11.4 Special Purpose Implements 8. Seeds and Sowing 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Characteristics Advantages of using Good Quality Seeds Seed Germination Seed Rate Seed Treatment 300 300 300 301 302 302 xiv CONTENTS 8.6 8.5.1 Methods of Seed Treatment Sowing 8.6.1 Methods of Sowing 8.6.2 Factors Involved in Sowing Management 9. Plant Density and Crop Geometry 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Importance Factors Affecting Plant Density Crop Geometry After Cultivation 10. Weeds Science 10.1 Origin 10.2 Characteristics 10.3 Classification 10.3.1 Based on Morphology 10.3.2 Based on Life Span of Weeds 10.3.3 Based on Ecological Affinities 10.3.4 Based on Soil Type (Edaphic) 10.3.5 Based on Their Botanical Family 10.3.6 Based on Their Place of Occurrence 10.3.7 Based on Cotyledon Number 10.3.8 Based on Soil pH 10.3.9 Based on Origin 10.3.10 Based on Their Nature/on Specificity 10.3.11 Based on Nature of Stem 10.4 Weed Dissemination (dispersal of weeds) 10.5 Weed Ecology 10.6 Crop-Weed Interactions 10.7 Weed Control 10.8 Interaction of Herbicides with Moisture, Fertilizers, Bio-fertilizers, Insecticides and Fungicides 10.9 Integrated Weed Management (IWM) 10.10 Herbicide Mixtures 10.11 Herbicide Rotation 10.12 Herbicide Tolerance and Resistance 10.13 Herbicide Antidote 10.14 Safeners/Protectants 10.15 Adjuvants 10.16 Management of Herbicide Residues in Soil 11. Irrigation and Water Management 11.1 Importance of Water 11.2 Importance of Irrigation Management 302 302 303 303 305 305 305 306 307 308 308 308 311 311 312 312 313 313 313 313 313 313 313 314 315 315 318 322 335 337 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 343 343 344 CONTENTS xv 11.2 Sources of Water 11.2.1 Surface Water 11.2.2 Sub Surface Water 11.3 History and Statistics 11.4 Crop Water Requirement 11.4.1 Evaporation 11.4.2 Transpiration 11.4.3 Evapotranspiration or Consumptive Use 11.4.4 Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) 11.5 Irrigation Requirement 11.6 Effective Rainfall 11.7 Methods of Irrigation 11.7.1 Factors Influencing Irrigation Methods 11.7.2 Classification of Irrigation Methods 11.8 Irrigation Systems 11.8.1 Gravity Irrigation 11.8.2 Tank Irrigation 11.8.3 Lift Irrigation 11.9 Measurement of Irrigation Water 11.9.1 Methods 11.10 Irrigation Scheduling 11.11 Irrigation Management 11.12 Estimation of Irrigation Efficiency 11.13 Irrigation Management Under Limited Water Supply 11.14 Water Management in Problem Soils 11.15 Management of Poor Quality Water for Irrigation 11.16 Drainage 11.17 Irrigation Management in Command Areas 11.18 Irrigation Management under Limited Water Supply 11.19 Water Relations of Soil 11.20 Movement of Water into Soils 11.20.1 Water Movement in Soil Profile 11.20.2 Water Movement in Unsaturated Condition 11.21 Water Vapour Movement 11.22 Soil Moisture Constants 11.22.1 Saturation 11.22.2 Field Capacity 11.22.3 Permanent Wilting Point 11.22.4 Available Soil Moisture 11.22.5 Moisture Equivalent 11.22.6 Hydraulic Conductivity 11.23 Estimation of Soil Moisture Constants 11.24 Moisture Extraction Pattern of Crops 11.25 Water Movement in Soil-Plant–Atmospheric System 11.26 Soil Moisture Estimation 346 346 347 347 351 352 353 353 353 358 360 361 361 362 377 377 377 378 378 378 386 396 397 400 403 405 407 411 413 414 414 415 416 416 417 418 418 418 418 420 420 421 422 423 426 xvi CONTENTS 11.26.1 Estimation of Soil Moisture by Gravimetric Method 11.26.2 Resistance Block 11.27 Soil Moisture Stress 12. Nutrient Management 12.1 Classification of Essential Elements 12.1.1 Based on the Relative Quantity that is Normally Present in Plants 12.1.2 Based on Their Chemical Nature 12.1.3 Based on General Function 12.1.4 Based on the Mobility in Plants 12.2 Nutrients–Role, Deficiency, Method of Control and Toxicity 12.3 Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms 12.4 Organic Manures 12.4.1 Bulky Organic Manures 12.4.2 Concentrated Organic Manures 12.4.3 Green Manure and Green Leaf Manure 12.5 Fertilizers 12.5.1 Classification 12.6 Bio Fertilizers 12.7 Factors Affecting Manures and Fertilizers Use 12.8 Time of Application 12.8.1 Method of Application 12.9 Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) 13. Dry Land Agriculture 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 Introduction Indian Agriculture-Scenario Dry Farming in India Aridity and Drought Soil Moisture Constraints 13.5.1 Methods of Soil Moisture Conservation 13.6 Climatological Approach for Crop Planning 13.7 Soil Fertility Management under Dry Farming 13.8 Contingency Crop Planning for Different Aberrant Weather Situations 13.9 Resource Management for Sustainable Agriculture 13.10 Alternate Land Use System 13.11 Watershed Development 14. Harvesting and Post Harvest Technology 14.1 Harvesting 15. Agronomy of Field Crops and Biofuel Plants 15.1 Cereals–Major 427 428 430 432 433 433 433 433 433 434 436 437 437 439 440 443 443 446 448 449 449 450 455 455 457 461 469 474 475 490 495 ...
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