MCR 130 Summer 2017 Week 8.ppt - Burtons Microbiology for the Health Sciences Section V Environmental and Applied Microbiology Copyright 2015 Wolters

MCR 130 Summer 2017 Week 8.ppt - Burtons Microbiology for...

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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Burton’s Microbiology for the Health Sciences Section V. Environmental and Applied Microbiology Burton’s Microbiology for the Health Sciences Section V. Environmental and Applied Microbiology
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Burton’s Microbiology for the Health Sciences Chapter 10. Microbial Ecology and Microbial Biotechnology Burton’s Microbiology for the Health Sciences Chapter 10. Microbial Ecology and Microbial Biotechnology
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Chapter 10 Outline Introduction Symbiotic Relationships Involving Microorganisms Indigenous Microbiota of Humans Beneficial and Harmful Roles of Indigenous Microbiota Microbial Communities (Biofilms) Agricultural Microbiology Microbial Biotechnology
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Beneficial and Harmful Roles of the Indigenous Microbiota (cont.) Opportunistic pathogens and biotherapeutic agents Opportunistic pathogens are those microbes that “hang around,” waiting for the opportunity to cause infection. Examples: E. coli , other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae , S. aureus , and Enterococcus spp. The delicate balance of the indigenous microbiota can be upset by antibiotics, other types of chemotherapy, and changes in pH. Bacteria and yeasts used to stabilize the microbial balance are called biotherapeutic agents or probiotics.
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Microbial Communities It is rare to find an ecologic niche in which only one type of microbe is causing a particular effect. Microbes are often organized into biofilms —complex communities of assorted organisms. Biofilms are everywhere (e.g., dental plaque).
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Microbial Communities Biofilms consist of a variety of different species of bacteria plus a gooey polysaccharide that the bacteria secrete; the bacteria grow in tiny clusters called microcolonies , separated by water channels. Biofilms have medical significance; they form on urinary catheters and medical equipment and can cause diseases like endocarditis.
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Biofilms logy/archive/animations/hires/a_mi crob2_h.html
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Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Microbial Communities (cont.) Microbes commonly associated with biofilms on medical devices include the yeast, Candida albicans , and bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Biofilms are very resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants. Antibiotics that are effective against pure cultures of organisms have been found to be ineffective against those same organisms within an actual biofilm.
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