Linguistics Exam 1 Study Guide

Linguistics Exam 1 Study Guide - Linguistics 101/301 Exam...

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Exam #1: Review 1. Definitions Dialect: See below. Idiolect: The language variety of an individual speaker. Isogloss: Lines drawn on maps dividing dialect areas. Transition Zone: Hypercorrection: Over generalization of particular rules in a language in an attempt to speak (or write) correctly. Egressive/ingressive: Airflow: Glottis: The space between the vocal folds. Diphthong: Vowels that show a noticeable change in quality within a single syllable. (ex: Hou se and ri de) Offglide: Sonorous/sonority(the quality of being sonorous): Characterized by relatively open vocal tract with relatively little obstruction of airflow a a sound is made (ex: vowels are sonorous) Syllable: A peak of sonority surround by less sonorous segments. Nucleus: An element that forms the core of a syllable. (the vowel) Onset: A part of a syllable that precedes the nucleus. Coda: A part of a syllable that follows the nucleus. Coarticulation: An articulation in which phonemes overlap to a certain extent. 2. What do we mean when we say that human beings have a specialization for language? Hundreds and thousands of years of evolution has created a special capacity for language in humans not found in any other species. We have speech organs (lungs, larynx, tongue, teeth, lips, soft palate, and nasal passages), we have 100 muscled just for the improvement of speech. Even when they are non vocal, cognitive aspects of language, such as formation, sentence building, the interpretation of meanings seems to be the product of neurological specialization. We have auditory and neurological parts specifically for speech. 3. Universals: what’s possible and what’s not possible in human language? Human language must be creative, allowing novelty and innovation in response to new thoughts, experiences, and situations. What do all languages have in common? Words, parts, what the parts mean, and translations.
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Linguistics Exam 1 Study Guide - Linguistics 101/301 Exam...

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