Linguistics Exam 3 Study Guide

Linguistics Exam 3 Study Guide - Final Exam Review The exam...

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Unformatted text preview: Final Exam Review The exam will be cumulative, but will focus on material we have covered since the second exam. But do go over the two previous review summaries. 1. Denitions: Constituent: function of a unit in syntax Antecedent: The element that determines the interpretation of a pronoun. Coreference: The relation between two NPs that refer to the same entity. Deixis: meaning of word that depends on context (pronouns like I and you, time depends on when you say them), Sprachbund (linguistic area). 2. Syntax Preliminaries: use of * to indicate ungrammaticality (in the linguists descriptive sense); Creativity (unlike words, sentences not memorized what evidence is there for this position?); Two components to the grammar: Lexicon: unpredictable info is stored and computational system (operations which combine and arrange words). 3. Syntactic Categories: Lexical categories (Noun [N], Verb [V], Adjective [A], Preposition [P], Adverb [Adv]) vs. nonlexical (functional) categories (Determiner [Det], Auxiliary Verb [Aux], Conjunction [Conj]). Traditional denitions of categories not precise. Instead, tests for distinguishing syntactic categories: meaning: traditional person place thing, inection: what type of afxes get put onto it, distribution (in phrases): (what environments they show up in.) 4. Tests for constituent structure: how words function as a unit substitution test: replace a group of words with another word movement test: moving things-to the front of a sentence coordination test: seeing if two things can be coordinated, showing if constituants 5. Structure: X' schema; Heads: SpeciFers: complements; phrases which provide information about entities and locations whose existence is implied by the meaning of the head.) IP, CP (always have). Auxiliaries in I. Complement clauses. Complementizer (C): A functional category that takes an IP complement, forming a CP (complementizer phrase); CP shell. 6. Operations: Merge: Combine words in a manner compatible with the X schema. Lexical items into a tree (d-structure), Move: a syntactic operation that transports an element to a new position within a sentence. (Inversion and WH-Movement) Inversion, WH-movement: Move a WH phrase to the speciFer position under CP. 7. Trees/derivations: statements, four types of questions: Yes/No questions: Merge creates D-structure based on X schema (Do Insertion operates if necessary) Inversion operates to create S-structure. Aux verb comes at front of sentence. Can I go now? Would you let the cat out? WH-questions (only asked to derive these 1 st two): Merge creates D-structure based on X schema (Do Insertion operates if necessary) WH-Movement and Inversion operate to create S-structure....
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This test prep was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course LING 101 taught by Professor Macaulay during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Linguistics Exam 3 Study Guide - Final Exam Review The exam...

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