Anthro Study Guide 1

Anthro Study Guide 1 - Anthropology Study Guide Test 1...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Anthropology Study Guide Test 1 Origins of Cultural Anthropology 19th century is when field really kicks off and gets more serious From Armchair Anthropology Sir James Frazer (1854-1941) Author, The Golden Bough Didn't leave their office or "arm chair" -bizarre rituals and religious beliefs Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (183201917) Authot, Primitive Culture and Anthropology To Fieldwork and Participant Observation Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) Ended up in the field by accident got stuck on Island on the cost of Australia- phenomenal Linguist ; left a diary and wrote books with great titles "sexual life of savages" Franz Boas (1858-1842) Most famous students Margart Meed Margareet Mead (1901-1978) The Study Of Culture Defining Culture E.B. Tylor: That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. Kroeber and Kluckhon, 164 Definitions (1952) Marvin Harris (materialist): A culture is the total socially acquired life-way or life style of a group of people. It consists of the patterned repetitive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that are characteristic of the members of a particular society or segment of society. (Lifestyles, and Life ways) Clifford GEertz (interpretivist): "Model of and a model for" Consists of symbols motivation, moods and thoughts. What is the meaning behind the action. Spradley and Mcurdy: Culture is the learned and shared knowledge that people use to generate behavior and interpret experience. Explicit Culture Tacit Culture Overview: Approaches to study of culture Approach Holistic: That particular elements (e.g economics politics, religions) can not be understood in isolation, but as part of larger whole. Comparative Evolutionary: how things are evolving and changing Societies are changing but not all in the same way Functionalist: Study and see how things function within a given society. Ex: functioning as a way of regulated a complex irrigation system in Bali (we know there is conflict and everything doesn't functions correctly) Structuralist: Overall Structure (Politcal, Economic, Language, Kinship) Symbolic Political Economy Methodologoy Qualitative vs. Quantitative Usually mostly qualititative Fieldwork They all do fieldwork, but some will spend time in archives looking at historical documants but generally most anthropologists go into field. Participant observation Living with the people Learning the language Participating in everyday life. Interviews Structred (Planned Questions) Unstructured (Not planned) Archival Sources Diaries, photographs, newspapers, indigenous texts Contemporary Issues of Discussion Culture vs. Microcultures Etic (outsider) vs. Emic (internal perspective) Kirin looks at India as both. Being half american she sometimes feels like an outsider. Maw (emic) from America, once she got there she became closer with culture.She is very much involved in Indian ways of life. Structure vs. Agency Are we looking at overall structure or are we looking at individuals within the society make a difference and change things- we want to allow for free will (with agency)- balance society and the individual Book talks a lot about what they should do, but Rahoul is fighting and is trying to show that you can learn your own way. For example Rahoul did not become what his father was (architect). People are constrained against structures but have means to rebel. Society Vs. Individual If we talk about thai culture are we essentialising? Are we misrepresenting the complexity Maw hangs out with everyone possible, exploring the different worlds and ways of thinking. Essentialism (few points) vs. Hybridity (following mix of society, communities) The way in which there is no such thing as thai culture because thai has always been on the influence of china, etc so can we talk about thai culture as opposed to global flow of ideals Local vs. Global (Village vs. Larger) Can I understand "my village"- without locating it with out locating with in the global of a state Maya went to america for college. Marriage wasn't recognized when they tried to cross the border, and they where married by a guru, and their names was spelled wrong on the papers. Jonathan came from america, and his family came in for the wedding. Synchronic (the given moment) vs. Diachronic (over time) Are we going to study as we see it or are we going to try and get a historical perspective and see it over time Single Sited vs. Multi-Sited In the day of Malinowsky they were single sited who is everyone what do they do on a day to day basis...really indepth sense with one community increasingly though people are know doing double sited- ex if you are to study domestic service from phillipines who look for work in Italy Paw was jealous of people who liked their job. Maw didn't know herself what her true identity was so she encouraged the kids to search for theirs. When rahoul went to the US he came out for being gay, doing drugs. Common Elements Is Learned, Based on Symbols, Internally integrated, Change Challenges Language Need to learn a language (UW teaches msot) Cuture Shock Many people experience a kind of psychological trauma when: Surrounded by people speaking a language they cannot fully understand and speak only imperfectly Eating strange foods Architecture Peoples Gestures and Behaviors Strange sounds, sights, smells, tastes This sometimes causes paranoia, anxiety, a longing for the folds back home, nausea, hypochondria, and frequently diarrhea. Bias: Personal to political Class, gender, Religion, NAtionality, Etc.. Gmelch: "to success at their studies (students) must learn to be inquisitive, to probe sensitivity and dig deep into another person's knowledge or memory of particular events or aspects of culture, and to concentrate, to listen to what they are being told, and later to be able to recall it so that they can record it in fieldnotes..." Language and Culture Definition of Language: The shared knowledge of sounds, meaning, and rules that allows people to communicate extremely complex and precise messages to one another. Language as shared knowledge; Speech is the application of that knowledge in the form of spoken communication Nonverbal vs. Verbal forms of Communication A Symbolic system of communication Meaning of Sounds are arbitrary There are very different senses (what your comfortable with) of space (in thailand) once a lady put her hand on her lap and she felt uncomfortable but really she was trying to put Bowie at ease. Of the same gender they tend to be more affectionate. Perceptions vs. Conceptions The Sapir-Whorf's Hypothesis: The idea that language influences a person's view of the world. The grammar of each language is note merely a reproduction instrument for voicing ideas but rater is itself the shaper of ideas. Are there ideas that you cannot have because you don't have a word or phrase for it? Biology/Mind Nature/Environment Very early on babies recognize their parents language opposed to foreign languages. We have different sounds from other languages. Its not that we don't hear them its we don't use them. In english we have an b and a p, but don't have a bhu sounds (like thailand). T and D but not a dhu sound. You tend to have more names for things you use more. Depending on the culture or language. Eskimo's have many names for snow. In Philippines you can name 92 types of rise. In a plant village 690 types of plants. Constricting a Social Universe Language: Defining self and society Age has a lot to do with creating a conversation. In by asking how old they are they are merely seeing whether or not you know the terms and how formal. In Thailand there is no single word for I. Which relates to Buddhism where there is no I (self). "dust under you feet" would be used for I for kings in a royal language. She asked us which women would change their last name and who wouldn't. We talked about whether it really defines who you are or not. Using names as a form of distancing. Respect is all in a name. People rename after a time period all depends on culture. Marking Differences Age, Status, Geographical differences. "bubbler vs. water fountain," Class/ Education Creating Social Identities. Picture: Children in scottish clothing Shaping opportunities Language and Social Change Language in Historical Perspective Constant Change English: Historical Summary 4th centaury low german Anglo Saxon Old English Middle English Modern English Church Latin Anglo Saxon Old Norse, Danish Old English Normal French Middle English Scientific Latin and Greek, Other Languages Modern English Conclusion: Complexity of Communication Translations may not mean exactly the same things in other languages. Coors Slogan "Turn it loose" in spanish = "Suffer from Diarrhea" Pepsi "Come alive with the pepsi generation" into chinese = "Pepsi brings Your Ancestors Back from the Grave" Movie: American Tongues Clichs- many people have different ways of talking One of the most prominent ways we size each other up People get criticized for how they talk Everybody talks with an accent Words, jargon, slang Folks in northern England spoke a different was then people from southern England As you go east to west (in US) it is harder to differentiate by accents Our speech reveals how we deal with the world- the more you listen the more we realize how our ways of speaking control our lives Its culture expressing themselves and it involves rhythms They themselves can not identify it but its their Appalachia- there is a strong emphasis on the individual The Midwest- "straight English" The western's- not supposed to hide anything; straightforward In different parts of the country foreign languages have left their mark (Cajun in Louisiana) (French and English) (Dutch and Pennsylvania) The words that they use- that's what strikes you when people talk Although we all speak the same language there are many words or expressions that are foreign to people of some areas across the US Gumband- rubberbad (PA) Pau hana- work's done (Hawaii) Jambalaya- spicy rice stew (Louisiana) Antigogglin- crooked (south and west) Snickelfritz- rowdy child (PA) Schlep- to carry (NYC) Words tell a lot about the people in a particular place Many words that described rainstorms in the Midwest because they have them so much As children get older peer influence is very important- they hear a lot of speech but its even more influential by the kids they hear talk on a day to day basis (they always fall back to their original dialect though- to feel comfortable) There is no such thing as one standard English accent NO dialect is better then others The phone operator- looking for generic speech that you could tell didn't come from anywhere in particular People can be very blunt when they are talking about people with certain accents or speech- and how their speech can affect their brains and personalities People in the south associate the southern accent with southern hospitality Zillions of stereotypes are reinforced in old movies Ex- world war movies- always dumb talking southerner vs all American hero's Regional stereotypes have been around for a while many of us feel like we know them based on what we've seen in movies... The nice guys and hero's who speak in "standard hero's" The other side- the accent tags a character as "real" Ex- mark twain's Huck Finn regional accents have been used to make their actors seem trustworthy There is a long a standing tradition in America where we use ethnic and regional accents as humor Consequences for certain accents- people make fun of you, may not get certain jobs Maybe learn a better dialect so you don't have to deal with it? Worst of all get stereotyped in their ability to do things Black English conversely today (dates back to a while ago) Symbolism: Cultural Imaginaire Definition: An object , word, or action with culturally defined meaning that stands for something else with which it has no necessary or natural relationship. A symbol is something which stands for or represents something else. They are arbitrary, unpredictable, and diverse The essence of symbolism lies in the recognition of one thing Symbolic differences across cultures: e.g. representations of women Representation of male god like figure and representations of women (pictures on slides); representations of sex (Adam and eve); Types of symbols, e.g. Summarizing vs elaborating symbols- here take example of flag in the UN; as citizens of the US its summarizes in UN it elaborates all the different nationalities Resistance vs. Domination- the US flag again can fit into both of those categories Key symbols there are certain symbols that represent the group; apple pie and motherhood Article in slides- controversy that a lot of teachers refuse to sing for the flag Properties: Condensation: the way in which individual symbols represent and unify a rich diverse meaning. A symbol can mean many things, depending on culture, or people. There are a range of different meanings a symbol can have, it condenses meaning and is multi-vocal, has emotional power. Multivocavity: The same symbol may be understood by different people in different ways. Ambiguity: has no single precise meaning. The complexity and uncertainty of meaning are sources of their strength. Meconnaissance: open to misrecognition e.g. people may ignore, intentionally or unintentionally, the "official meaning" and or assign meaning(s) different from ones intended by the state. Picture: Pig (an all of its meanings) Free associate with the pig: dirty, fatty, not healthy; and others warmer associations movie BABE make great pets, smart (same with cow) Stories: Someone urinated on a Buddha, that made it to news that people did not like. Analyzing the symbolism of Food, Clothing, and Shelter Food: how it's laid out, how It's being eaten, what is being eaten, taboo's certain foods will not be eaten in a certain clan Ex: the sacred cow in India; McDonalds's in Asia is so expensive it's a pretty classy thing to do and spending an extended time their; who you eat with in Thailand people avoid eating with people who they think are witches; food is complex phenomena Clothing: No less complicated, indicates status, ethnicities, veils- having head covering is widespread (Posture, Dress) Shelter/architecture: Tremendous diversity (libraries, churches, houses) wherever you are you can study the way a house looks. Construction (complexity), special meanings, animals, statues/figures, regional differences (low end thai are on stilts, and oxen are tied up underneath, shady and cool), how one may sit in a house may show status, layout of building (one community mens hut in center, and wives children on outside) Lifting the house on 4 legs: Safety from wild beasts and possible intruders during night time. As a measure against any inconvenience from flooding. Space under the house for storage of farming equipment such as "kwian" (buffalo drawn wagon), planks, boats, ploughing set, large frying pan, etc. Floor space under the house is used for producing handicraft, and a common sitting or squatting area. We living in a complexity symbolic world in which even elements simple are imbued with cultural meaning. Rituals Ritual- Definition: "a social practice composed of a particular sequential ordering of symbols in several different modalities. These modalities may include dance, singing, speech, bodily actions, the manipulations of certain objects, etc." Types Life cycles (throughout course of lifetime) Calendrical Situation/Life Crisis (healing) Structure Separation (ritual has started) Transitional (middle phase) Liminality (not in, but no out) Communitas (beginning to feel you are part of something much bigger than yourself) Reaggregation Symbolism in ritual Novices undergoing decorative disguise for the "coming out" ritual Kambanji, the bravest and cleverest novice, leads the others in dancing the kutomboka solo war-dance before the assembled vicinage at the coming-out ritual of Mukanda The shrine of a great hunter: forked branches inserted to honor hunterancestors are interspersed with the quickest muyombu trees planted to commemorate lineage shades Structural Ambiguity: The Power of Neither/Nor Cassowaries- Can lay eggs like a bird, but cannot fly like a bird. Holds special position in rituals. (are very large flightless birds native to the tropical forests of New Guinea and northeastern Australia Different societies have different ritual cycles Ex) different dates for New Years Day Ex- February 7, 2008: year of the rat! (Chinese zodiac) Chinese new year: / (Ya Sui Qian, which was Red packets are also known as evolved from / , literally, the money used to suppress or put down the evil spirit ). Red envelopes always contain money, usually varying from a couple of dollars to several hundred. The amount of money in the red packets should be of even numbers, as odd numbers are associated with cash given during funerals ( : Bai Jin). Since the number 4 is considered bad luck, because the word for four is a homophone for death, money in the red envelopes never adds up to $4. However, the number 8 is considered lucky (for its homophone for "wealth"), and $8 is commonly found in the red envelopes. Sometimes chocolate coins are found in the red packets. Odd and even numbers are determined by the first digit, rather than the last. Thirty and fifty, for example, are odd numbers, and are thus appropriate as funeral cash gifts. Loi Krathong/Dyan Yi Paeng. Second Month Full Moon November Religious festival held just after the end of Buddhist Lent and before the beginning of the harvesting. Involves making merit and listening to sermons. Send rockets/balloons to invite the heavenly deities. Funerals in Thailand: the most important life cycle ritual Most expensive ritual in Thailand- 3-5 days Rituals change over time Ex) Halloween, Mother's Day, Birthday, Memorial Day, Valentines Day in Thailand is being commercialized Valentines day- cupid another symbol of the holiday, became associated with it because he was the son of venus, the Roman god of love and beauty Valentines Day (probably don't need to know) For eight hundred years prior to the establishment of Valentine's Day, the Romans had practiced a pagan celebration in mid-February commemorating young men's rite of passage to the god Lupercus. The celebration featured a lottery in which young men would draw the names of teenage girls from a box. The girl assigned to each young man in that manner would be his sexual companion during the remaining year. In an effort to do away with the pagan festival, Pope Gelasius ordered a slight change in the lottery. Instead of the names of young women, the box would contain the names of saints. Both men and women were allowed to draw from the box, and the game was to emulate the ways of the saint they drew during the rest of the year. Instead of the pagan god Lupercus, the Church looked for a suitable patron saint of love to take his place. They found an appropriate choice in Valentine, who, in AD 270 had been beheaded by Emperor Claudius. Emperor Claudius had determined that married men made poor soldiers. So he banned marriage from his empire. But Valentine would secretly marry young men that came to him. When Claudius found out about Valentine, he was jailed and then beheaded. During the days that Valentine was imprisoned, he fell in love with the blind daughter of his jailer. His love for her, and his great faith, managed to miraculously heal her from her blindness before his death. Before he was taken to his death, he signed a farewell message to her, "From your Valentine." The phrase has been used on his day ever since. Although the lottery for women had been banned by the church, the mid-February holiday in commemoration of St. Valentine was still used by Roman men to seek the affection of women. It became a tradition for the men to give the ones they admired handwritten messages of affection, containing Valentine's name. Esther Howland (1828-1904) Esther Allen Howland, born in 1828 at 16 Summer Street in Worcester, Massachusetts, was a pioneer in the American valentine manufacturing industry. It was after her graduation from Mount Holyoke College, in 1847, that she received her first English valentine. Fascinated with the idea of making similar valentines, she imported the necessary paper lace and floral decorations from England. She began taking orders for valentines, and was surprised to discover a demand for more than she could make by herself. She then recruited friends to assist her, and issued her first advertisement in a Worcester paper, The Daily Spy, on Feb. 5, 1850. The assembly line operation that began in her home eventually led to a thriving business grossing $100,000 annually. She retired in 1881, selling her business to the George C. Whitney Company. Valentine's day in Thailand ''Valentine's Day is being commercialised ...'' Most people who celebrate this day are teenagers. However, sometimes they take it too far. Thai teenagers think that Valentine day is the day where you can get a chance of mating with the opposite sex. It has been very common in the past couple of years and short term hotels are usually fully booked. Thailand. Valentine's Day promotes premature sex in young teenagers. 8 February 2008 With Valentine's Day approaching fast the provincial cultural council yesterday called for strict monitoring of "Love Nests". They want these "Love Nests" monitored for underage couples. A love nest can range from love motels to internet cafes. The Cultural Council chairman Jiraphan Pimpan voiced concerns that several love motels have cropped up around the city of Ayutthaya and that all outbound highways in every direction lead to such motels. She urged police and related agencies to step up checks at motels which the council has found to have allowed minors, who usually arrived on motorcycles. Motel operators should make sure that their customers are not minors by requesting their identity cards at check-in, she said. The council's survey also identified six locations that young couples chose for promiscuous behavior or even premature sex. They include three public parks _ near the Somdej Phra Sri Suriyothai monument and King Naresuan monument and the Somdej Phra Srinakarindra Boromarajajonani Park. Teens were found to have got carried away in the provincial sports stadium, particularly the area on the back of a basketball field. Other locations include karaoke rooms, internet cafes and isolated corners in department stores. From Daily News forum In recent years, Thai youngsters have associated Valentine's Day with sex. ''The idea is that a Valentine's night will not be complete without sex,'' 'This is lust, not love." To celebrate the occasion in a meaningful way, Thai people should give love, support and good wishes to their families, friends and colleagues instead of focussing on romantic love and sex" Public Health Minister Pinij Jarusombat ( ) launched a campaign to distribute more than 10,000 condoms to teenagers, to educate youths on the true meaning of Valentine's Day. Mr. Pinij said that the campaign was aimed at making youths understand Valentine's Day as a day to give love and good wishes to one another. He said that teenagers are hoped to learn how to have safe sex by using condoms. Unorthodox methods from Mechai to safer sex are Condom-blowing contests Programs for taxi drivers to hand out condoms to their fares Glued condoms to visiting cards Put condoms on key chains Diners at his Cabbages & Condoms restaurant get a plate of condoms instead of mints after their meals. Persuaded Buddhist monks to sprinkle holy water on condoms Hired farmers to spray-paint condom ads on their cows to reach the message to the farmers Persuaded traffic cops, Santas and toll-booth operators to distribute condoms Produce a stuffed teddy bear and a cat, both made of snipped condoms instead of plush "Mechai" is now slang for "condom" in the Thai language. A Thai waiter wears a condom over his head while serving a cocktail at the Cabbages and Condoms restaurant in Bangkok on July 2004 The restaurant's courtyard is filled with trees draped in fairy lights and a small waterfall. But look closely at the bouquets of flowers and the petals are made of condoms. Pretoria, South Africa: Omar finds Valentine's condoms a hard sell The gospel of condom usage is to be preached harder now that Valentine's Day is around the corner, says Transport Minister Dullah Omar. He was speaking at the launch of National Condom Week in Pretoria on Monday and signed a "message of hope" aimed at raising Aids awareness among truck drivers. They were targeted because "they contribute towards the spread of Aids and are most at risk due to the nature of their work", Omar said. "These are the people who spend most of their lives on the road traveling to and from various neighboring countries; hence they can easily transport the disease across the borders." The minister's message will be carried to towns in Northern Province this week by a pair of Corridors of Hope cyclists. Japie Makalana and Vicky Cotter were set to leave the city on Tuesday for Warmbaths. On Wednesday they will leave for Pietersburg and on Thursday will cycle from Pietersburg to Messina Conclusion: As symbols shape the way we think, rituals shape our actions. Ever changing, rituals are embedded in meanings, which influence and are influenced by other aspects of our culture. Art Worlds: Some thoughts on Culture, Art & Politics Some key questions and topics What can art worlds tell us about culture and power? Local vs. global horizons "Art and the equipment to grasp it are made in the same shop" - Clifford Geertz You have to me Buddhist or so and so to understand that particular art work If art worlds are connecting globally these days it makes us wonder what that is Toraja Art Sulawesi, Indonesia The Toraja made "tau tau" effigies of the dead Celebratory arts honored ancestors the art there is fulfilling a ritual function Formal patterns across art forms In 1980's, the tau-tau are robbed from graves, and enter the global market for primitive art Sold in LA and Paris for $20,000 A ritual object-being becomes "art" The shade from the hill came over and spoke in language (rover Thomas 1974) painting; this is more of an aerial view Some things Geertz's view misses... Objects and artists are on the move as objects move from one culture to another the meanings change very much Art worlds intermingle Meanings and values change Cultural and political clashes (Nationalism is very new phenomena in the world and because Indonesia is a new culture they brought 350cultures together to be "Indonesian") Largest Buddhist monument in the world With the spread of Islam the ideas associated with the prophet islam...glass painting of the Barak Many of the court art court dancers With regime change comes art change That nationalist and revolutionary spirit preoccupied many of the artist Creativity and conflict in Contemporary Indonesian Islamic Art How Islamic art world responded to political change Soonario- artist- made him very angry decided what could be the purpose of art in times of grief and morning (he was binding his own artwork as a result- the show was called "a low point") Caligraphic arts- was considered a high art form Conflict and the Circulation of Images: Art, Design and Blasphemy Air vs Allah (picture) Nike sneakers Air symbol was placed on heel but look at the Allah word so that's how people in the Muslim saw it that way Fragment from the Quar'an, Surah 6, verse 82 "for they are rightly guided" Claudia Shifford's bustier was engraved with Arabic The bustier was destroyed with in the week and apologies were made This is a case when we have blasphemy when it has contact with a naked female sexual body Points of reflection Art worlds are enmeshed in political and cultural spheres at the national and global level Movement of ideas, objects, and people Art worlds are internally diverse (no such thing as a monolithic "Islamic art workd") Art worlds marked by debate and conflict Kinship Definition of Kinship: The complex system of social relationships based on marriage (affinity) and birth (consanguinity). Family vs Non-Family Us vs Them Blood vs Non-Blood Fictive Kinship, e.g. Godparents, Hijras, Thai village, National Family, Global Family Complexity of cross-cultural definition of marriage Marriages without sex Ghost marriage: Nuer Spirit Brides: Chinese Symbolic marriage: Catholic nuns Sex without Marriage Mother's Brothers vs. Fathers E.g. Na (also Musuo/Naxi) in china Sex Optional Kerala, India. Kettukalyanam (Mock marriage ceremony) The thaali tying rite took place before the onset of puberty. During this ceremony the girl was married to a man, preferably a Namboothiri Brahman. The ritual husband had no further duties to the girl after the completion of this ritual, although she had to observe a period of death impurity upon the death of her ritual husband. The thaali ceremony was a female centered ritual, which emphasized fertility and household prosperity. This ceremony had to be performed on pain of excommunication. A typical Nair Tharavadu. Nairs followed the Marumakkathayam (Matrilineal) system of inheritance and lived in units called Tharavadus (matrilineal joint-family ). The tharavadu referred to relations of property shared by a group tracing descent from a common ancestress. The traditional Axia system is marriage-free. Mosuo men call their beloved women Axia ("intimate companion") and women call their lovers Azhu. They are not bound by marriage and will live in their mothers' homes all their lives. Every adult Mosuo girl has a special Azhu house of her own where her lover can visit during the night but must leave early the next morning. If the girl wishes to stop the love affair she simply closes the door and then the man will not return. The lovers have no economic or legal ties: Their relationship is based only on mutual love and affection, where the will of the female is highly respected. If children are born into the family, they belong exclusively to the mother's side and inherit her surname. They are raised with their mother and uncles. Heterosexual vs Homosexual relations Selection of partners Endogamy Vs. Exogamy Endogamy- practice of marrying within a social group. Cultures who practice endogamy require marriage between specified social groups, classes, or ethnicities Exogamy- opposite of endogamy. Mayyring outside social groups Arranged Marriages vs. Romantic Love E.g. India Monogamy vs. Polygamy Polygamy: Multiple wives Polyandry: Multiple husbands Interaction of Kinship and religion Interaction of Kinship and economy Inheritance Patterns Primogeniture- is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. Ultimogeniture (rarer historically) tradition where the last-born receives the inheritance Equal Shares Interaction of kinship and political systems Matrilocal kinship shapes electoral politics at the village level in Thailand. Changes in kinship patterns over time In Ireland- divore "social evil" "Say no to divorce and say yes to g-d" Variation in Post-Marital Thailand: Matrilocal (man marries in to women's family) Evonilocal: when you live with your mothers brother Conclusion Kinship is a complex system of social relationships based on marriage and birth. In different societies, kinship has varying and changing interrelations with religious beliefs, economics and politics. Ultimately it shapes how we define "family", who we feel responsible for helping and to whom we can turn for assistance. The "family" may be as small as a nuclear family or as large as a nation and beyond. Guest Speaker: Kirin Narayan Ethnography: A research method and genre (kind of writing) Ethno/graphy: Writing about a way of life, or "writing culture" Based on field work: participant observation, interviews, etc. "native point of view" "thick description" Extend existing scholarship-references (read the right things, have the right theories), etc. (experience) Memoir A different kind of writing-linked to autobiography Tells the story of your memory of experience A portion of life arranged around a theme Fieldwork memoirs by anthropologists tell about their fields work experiences Like ethnography: partial, incomplete Family Stories Identity shaped by the stories told within a family A claim to a particular status: caste myths and legends A form of moral instruction:ways to behave Perform kinship: imaginative connections (imaginatively alive) Focus on certain topics can orient a person's other interests, including scholarly ones. Writing the Past Memoirs: dramatic events stand out Notes, Letters, Photographs, Conversations, Showing drafts Hindu g-ds and goddesses Braham-the formless, and also, 33 million deities Key cosmic roles in cycles of time: Brahman, the creator and (daughter) Sarawati Goddess of Learning Vishnu, the Preserver and Lakshmi, Goddess of Wealth Shiva, the destroyer, who makes creations possible and Parvati, daughter of the mountains/Kali, Goddess of Time Hindu Holy People Sadhu: Holy man (15% of people)/ Sadhvi holy woman Guru: Teacher, specifically a spiritual leader Sannyasi: renouncer who has formally cut ties family takin on a new identity; is celibate; no possessions Shishya: disciple (but Pa invents (`urug') Ashram: the place where a guru lives Goddess Worship "Shakta" from shakti, divine female energy The male g-ds have shakti, who May be their consorts Mother Goddesses may also stand alone Worshiped as beautiful and benevolent and also fiercely protective Field Work Nasik, Western India, in 1983 and 1985 "Old Swamiji" Swami Prakashananada Saraswati A Sadhu or holy man Sannyasi or renoucner A guru or teacher Teaching through fold narrative to disciples and visitors Many of his stories were about sadhus, presented as simpleton, saint, scoundrel, storyteller. Niether man Nor Women Kamladevi: A Prostitute Speaks Fluent English, a Protestant Went to college and earned a degree but eventually ran off with the community. Father was police man was trying to keep him from doing girl things. Whoever calls you off to your house firsts becomes your guru They first see whether you can work, then whether they behave like a "lady," and there are many rules, that the elders enforce strongly and are strict. The elders don't like you having a husband because it means less money for them. They also don't like you have any relations with women. She does not seem to have been able to use her considerable insight and intelligence to carve out a contended life for herself Frequently complaining about situation- bit did not seem to be able to find a way to get out of it- "the life is very troublesome" Believes that her life is full of troubles because she has not gone to Mata's Temple. She prays to her to make her troubles go away, and once she has the money she will go. She says that those who say they have no sexual interest are telling lies, and that in this life you get the bad habits first, and as you get older you lose desire for this sexual interest and think more of religion. The operation- ambivalent about it- always had bad health emasculated Past away of some respiratory illness says one of her friends but then later found out that she married a muslin and they pulled all their money together but it wasn't enough to get her nourishment (author believes that maybe she did not die- because of her life as prostitute she had to move and no one new where she was) Meera: A New Guru 42 years old and on her way of becoming a successful guru Born in Malaysia, parents of a middle-level agricultural caste, and she joined because of the elements of cross-gender behavior Really tall, and masculine looking, large boned, taking hormone treatments to be "more like a woman." Met while visiting a house where the Hijra's hung out after their operation Bright, articulate person who appeared self confident and assertive More feminine then other Hijra's she met, black wavy hair, dresses well Was very neat and clean, and cared about her reputation and respectability. Has husband but denied it to Serena, it was confirmed through other Hijras though. Meera would say its not good to have relations with women. Meera met a Ahmed, with whom she has had a relationship for several years and whom she calls a husband, and he is a central person in her life, and splits the time bequally being a wife and a guru. He grew liking to her after the operation and the difficulties that she went through. Ahmed's parents didn't like the arrangement and tried to beat Meera and even kill her. After a riot after dancing, Amhed's parents beat Meera, and told her to be ashamed, and this now prevents her from dancing again. Among Muslims, if a married women goes out to perform they punish her. Ahmed was seeing another girl at the time, and Meera felt that he wouldn't leave because of the money she brought. He even asked her to beat her for him and when Meera refused, he beat her himself, and then left her. Ahmed is the head of a gang of rowdies. Performed 18 successful operations, and currently has given up her fame because Ahmed, and Mata doesn't want her to perform anymore. Has seniority in Hijras community, and adopted a child. Sushila: Achieving Respect Born a male, of a Tamil family in Malaysia. Feisty, dynamic and lively- admits that she drinks and fights too much; lived in the "red-light district" of prostitution but was friendly with them Father is a middle level civil servant in Madras, and she has 3 brothers and 2 sisters. Has been a member of the Hijras community for 18 years. Was largely supported by her husband and didn't need to work as regularly as the other prostitutes. She smokes, something that only a few in Bastipore do. Articulate, fluent speaker. Serena likes her the best because of her hospitality, generosity, and friendliness that make india such a delightful place to work. She constantly struggles to be herself, say what she thinks, and act however the impulse moved her, and yet live up to the norms of her society, and be established as a respectable person in the community. Shows spunk and determination. Was born "abnormal". Did not have operation because she had her mother's spirit on her. Raj Dev, one of the most important gurus, was her guru. He eventually died but Sushila claims that he didn't entirely cheat her, with the jewels and things he gave her. She was paralyzed by Lalitha doing black magic. After leaving after his death, she went to Gasworks Street and changed husbands from a scooter-taxi driver to a Brahmin a chauffeur for a large corporation. The husband does not like that she is doing prostitution. She claims though if he was to leave her she would have nothing, and wants the other Hijras to think she is something. Tried to find him a wife, and wrote to an orphanage in Madras to see if there were any girls who would be suitable. Her mother dies when she was twelve, she went to live, where she moved into a fisherman's hose, who she was having sexual relations with when 13. Hasn't had operation, but achieved respect through building normal family Adopted 1st husband son, and arranges marriage with neighbor's sister. The couple now had a son making Sushila a grandmother. After this Sushila found another husband who did not live with her but occasionally spent the night. If they go out husbands pretend to not see them or acknowledge that they know eachother. Now she lives a respectable life with her husband, and no longer is a prostitute. Salima: An Outcast When author first met she was living on the street, sleeping on a tattered bedroll with not so much as a plastic lean-to to protect her from the monsoon rains that fell heavily in Bombay She is a muslim and born in Bombay. The interviews were hard to manage, and were in a nearby park. She lived in a hostel, and was very dirty. Joined Hijras when 10-11 years old, started out begging and performing (the 2 sided drum), she was the head of her chelas at that time and she went and begged and performed for 15 years.. Is a "real" Hijra, born intersexed- because born that way didn't need to go through emasculation operation rather she had a very elaborate nose- and ear-piercing ceremony Her parents were sad about this and accept her as their eldest daughter/ During the years as a begger she met her muslim husband Ibrahim, who she lived with for 6 years. She saw him on the sly, and convinced her guru that this attachment would in no way undercut her own loyalty and economic contribution to the group. Would beg and perform with her "sister" Hijra's- she played the dholak- a prestigious function in the group When her guru fell ill she remained at her house as well as her guru's husbans who would make sexual advances at her, which she repulsed. He forced her to have sex and then made it publicly known and turned the bombay elders against her. In which then was thrown out of the guru's house and the community. Now anyone who would associated with her would as well be exiled from the community as well. In order to gain re-entry she would have to pay 500 rupees to Jamat. She was unable to pay back now for 7 years. She sometimes joins up with a group of zenanas (nonhijra female impersonators). Her husband- Ibrahim had gone away but still important person in her life During life with husband kept close contact with guru, and occasionally would dance give money to guru, but not any money from husbands. Ibrahim claims that his parents who where visiting him, found out about them and came and took him away, whether Salima believes that or not, this is what he claims. Salima first told Serena that she hit her guru, after she (guru) refused to give her money for her sister, and this was the reason for being an outcast. We later learn something else. After Guru dies, one of her guru's chelas juniors tricked her out of everything left to her and made sure she left. As well as the guru's husband. Who never liked Salima. Went to live with guru after Ibrahim left her Guru (sona) left everything to her- to help people- Guru's husband drugged her- the guru's husband tried to sleep with her took a photo and told all the naiks that her father had "spoiled her" and she had no choice but to leave her house Was guru's favorite, disciple. Finally after writing to Ibriham, he came back, when her condition was worsening, and even he was a little ill, and unable to work, and she makes enough to fill their stomach's. ...
View Full Document

This test prep was uploaded on 03/27/2008 for the course ANTHRO 104 taught by Professor Bowie during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online