Copy of Collaborative Hist Final Exam Guide.pdf - IDs...

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IDs Social Contract Who: Locke, Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau What: The idea that people are voluntary giving up parts of their rights to the states for security and safety Rousseau’s “the Social Contract” (1750): created origins of civil society and legitimate government, criticized social inequality and private property, argued against division of sovereignty; agreement that give up individual rights for the overall protection of the state When: Became popular mainly in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries (during the age of Enlightenment) Where: Mainly Europe and North America WHY (significance): It helped inspire political reforms and revolutions in Europe, especially in France (French Revolution) Also formed the ideological foundation for American society in the 1787 US constitution It was more modern (during the age of Enlightenment) because it recognized that people had rights (people weren’t assumed to have rights in order to give some of them up to the states before then). As a result of social change and social progress, people started to recognize these rights Meiji Restoration Who: The Japanese Emperor, who claimed that his revolution was merely a "restoration" of the emperor to his throne. What: The overthrow of the Tokugawa bakufu in Japan in 1868 and the "restoration" of power to the imperial government under the Emperor Meiji. It abolishes the shogunate and restores the emperor as head of the administration. Forced daimyo to yield their lands to the government and eliminated the samurai class. When: 1868-1912 Where: Japan Why (significance):
It abolished the shogunate and change the structure of Japanese government. This reversion to a highly centralized and militarized form of government reflected the trend in many 19th century nations, including the US, Italy, and Germany. The newly centralized state of Japan matches the notion that the interests of states came above those of the individual or of religion; this is known as Staatspolitik in German. Coolies Who: Poor laborers from China and India Indentured servants What: Left their homelands to do hard manual and agricultural work in other parts of the world Indentured servants whose condition was close to slavery. When: 19th and early 20th centuries Where: They moved to the US (Hawaii), Australia, Latin America, South Africa, and even the Caribbean Why (significance): They moved for better economic opportunities They worked on US railroads Suez Canal Who: Egypt, France, UK were all involved What: An artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea When: 1869 Where: Egypt WHY (significance): Major powers fought over it (Suez Crisis) The UK and France conspired with Israel to let the Israelis (who had bad relations with Arabs in general) invade the canal, allowing the English and French to intervene and declare the tenuous canal under Anglo-French protection US did not back this Bismarck Who: Was the Chancellor of the German Empire from 1871 until 1890

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