1 GERD, PUD, and Gastritis Brook Moore Walden University Advanced Pathophysiology NURS 6501N-33 October 13, 2018
GERD, PUD, AND GASTRITIS 2 GERD, PUD, and Gastritis The gastrointestinal tract is comprised of numerous organs with individual functions that work together as an intricate system to digest and process ingested food. It extends from the mouth to the anus and includes the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and rectum (Huether & McCance, 2017). Other organs that assist in the normal function of the gastrointestinal system are the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. As the GI organs are responsible for a multitude of processes in the body, dysfunction in any one of the organs along the GI tract can result in life-altering symptoms and potentially harmful consequences to the body. As advanced practice nurses care for patients across the lifespan with many different presenting symptoms, it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of disorders of the GI system and their presentations. Quick diagnosing and treatment of GI conditions is necessary to prevent permanent damage to the body with long-term effects. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on normal gastric acid stimulation and production and examine the pathophysiology of common GI disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and gastritis. Additionally, this paper will explore diagnostic, and treatment options for these diseases as well as the affect patient behaviors have on the pathophysiology of the disorders and how they are treated. Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production The gastrointestinal tract and its accessory organs are responsible for the digestion of food, providing energy for the body’s cells, regulating fluid intake, and ridding the body of waste. Digestion begins in the mouth where the food is consumed, chewed, mixed with saliva and enzymes that begin to break it down as it travels to the stomach (Huether & McCance, 2017). Throughout the descent, the partially broken-down food is met with a significant amount
GERD, PUD, AND GASTRITIS 3 of fluids secreted from the exocrine glands such as the salivary glands, pancreas, and gallbladder as well as the epithelial cells that run along the lumen of the tract (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). Next, the gastrointestinal contents move to the small intestine where they are absorbed into the blood vessels and lymph system to be carried to the liver and stored (Huether & McCance, 2017). Eating initiates, the phases of gastric acid secretion known as cephalic, gastric, and intestinal. The cephalic phase begins when a person sees, smells, tastes, and swallows food while activating the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve causing vagal discharge and parasympathetic motor nerves (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). As a result, parietal cells are activated by the release of acetylcholine, histamine, and gastrin-releasing peptide. The second phase of the gastric releasing process is the gastric phase brought on by distention in the stomach
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- Fall '17
- keisha lovence
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastritis