(Green Energy and Technology) Giuliano DallO (auth.)-Green Energy Audit of Buildings_ A guide for a - Green Energy and Technology Giuliano Dall'O Green

(Green Energy and Technology) Giuliano DallO (auth.)-Green Energy Audit of Buildings_ A guide for a

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Unformatted text preview: Green Energy and Technology Giuliano Dall'O' Green Energy Audit of Buildings A Guide for a Sustainable Energy Audit of Buildings Green Energy and Technology For further volumes: Giuliano Dall’O’ Green Energy Audit of Buildings A Guide for a Sustainable Energy Audit of Buildings 123 Giuliano Dall’O’ Department Architecture Built environment and Construction engineering (ABC) Politecnico di Milano Milan Italy Additional material to this book can be downloaded from . ISSN 1865-3529 ISBN 978-1-4471-5063-3 DOI 10.1007/978-1-4471-5064-0 ISSN 1865-3537 (electronic) ISBN 978-1-4471-5064-0 (eBook) Springer London Heidelberg New York Dordrecht Library of Congress Control Number: 2013933593  Springer-Verlag London 2013 LEED is a registered trademark of USGBC. Copyright  2011 U.S. Green Building Council. All Rights Reserved. This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) Preface The energy issue has been in recent years, and will be in the years to come, the most critical factor for a sustainable development of our society. The energy demand in the entire world, driven by expectations of a better quality of life in emerging countries, as well as by population increase, has reached levels that cannot be sustained in the future. Two elements make the situation even more critical for the coming years: fossil fuels are limited and their widespread use causes significant adverse environmental impacts such as the production of carbon dioxide, one of the causes of global warming, but also acid rain, higher ozone concentration, or particulates, common emergencies in urban areas. There is a widespread awareness of how the energy problem must be dealt with, being the implementation of long-term energy policies, very different from those adopted so far. A drastic improvement in energy efficiency at all processing levels and in all sectors (e.g. industry, transports, construction, services), and a significant use of alternative energy sources (e.g. solar, wind, biomass), through a planned process of replacing the fossil origin fuels, are necessary. A significant and necessary challenge supported by new strategies but, above all, by a new cultural approach, oriented towards environmental sustainability. These changes in energy policies have concretely been initiated in the last ten years: almost all countries are committed to achieving the goals of reducing carbon dioxide emissions on the basis of international agreements (e.g. the Kyoto protocol). The European Union is defining medium- and long-term targets and programmes through to 2050, by introducing verification steps in order to correct the strategies adopted by the Member States. This international challenge should not only be seen as an emergency, but as an interesting opportunity, as it can generate positive effects in the economy. The implementation of new energy policies requires the use of new technologies for energy conversion and end-uses: this stimulates the research in the various fields involved and obviously new skills for the actors (e.g. engineers, architects, energy managers, specialists, building managers, etc.). The whole of these new technologies, and the related services, is the basis of the green economy: an interesting opportunity to develop the economy towards greater sustainability targets. v vi Preface The European Union is promoting among the Member States a common strategy to face the challenge. Policies for energy efficiency have been developed not in Europe alone but also in other parts of the world, often with the aim of stimulating the economy in recession: in 2009 the U.S. Government proposed a series of economic measures for public and private employers to give a clear impetus to the development of the green economy. The rapid evolution of rules for the energy efficiency of new buildings, results in a large energy performance gap between new buildings and existing ones that constitute the real estate. The improvement in the energy performance of existing buildings, through energy retrofit measures, is indeed a great chance for operators and, more generally, for the green building economy. A correct definition of the retrofit measures, that should be cost-effective, is however not so easy: it requires a detailed analysis of the causes of energy wastes, through a methodological and a professional approach. Accurate and complete energy audits are essential as a means to assess and verify a project’s success at meeting performance goals. The book Green Energy Audit fits into the framework discussed above, as a tool to support, from the technical and economical points of view, all the actions aimed at improving the performance of existing buildings and their facilities. The energy audit methodology proposed in this book has led us to define an acronym different from the traditional one: Green Energy Audit. The added value lies in the ‘‘green’’, a word that refers to and summarizes a widespread concept; that of environmental sustainability. In fact, the Green Energy Audit is not limited to providing tools and methods to reduce energy consumption, but it poses a more ambitious objective: to contribute to an overall improvement in the sustainability of the building under consideration. The book also provides the elements to understand what possible benefit will be obtained, once implemented measures to improve the sustainability, to start a process of certification under LEED protocols. The technical literature offers many rigorous books and handbooks dealing with the matter related to energy audits, however, the publications are often intended for experts with in-depth, baseline knowledge of the subject. Indeed this book is designed to give the reader, in a simple and accessible way, and without requiring in-depth skills, a comprehensive method to analyze the building and the facilities. It shows how to properly use the audit instrumentation for field surveys and monitoring, to define the baseline energy balance, to identify the retrofit measures assuming different scenarios, to make economic evaluations, hence evaluating the improvement of global sustainability, and to prepare a clear and effective technical report. The book Green Energy Audit of Buildings is aimed at many types of audience: • engineers and architects who are already operating at various levels in the energy fields, and who may have experience in the field of energy audit. It will assist in completing their methodological approach and provide ideas to improve their expertise; Preface vii • energy assessors who wish to undertake the profession of auditor; • lecturers and gradate/postgraduate students of science, engineering, architecture, and construction who want to improve their knowledge on the issues of sustainability of buildings and energy audit; • not only those responsible for maintenance of buildings, but also for all nontechnical energy operators, such as real estate managers or building managers. The purpose of this book is, above all, to spread knowledge and interest on the topics of energy and environmental quality of buildings, so contributing, pragmatically, to the change in real estate. I am grateful to many people, beginning with the colleagues who have provided written contributions, that have been included in the book in specific topics. A special thanks goes to my colleague and friend Luca Sarto, who also helped me in the review of the entire book. I am also grateful to the colleagues and the students who provided valuable feedback and encouraging comments on most of the material of this book. I am grateful to Mark Izard who helped me in finding the correct way to express the concepts, but at the same time his help was for me a useful comparison in viewpoints on the technical aspects. Finally I express my thanks to Mr. Anthony Doyle for agreeing to include this book in the prestigious series ‘‘Green Energy and Technology’’ of Springer, giving me the opportunity to contribute to this important project. Milan, April 2013 Giuliano Dall’O’ Contents 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Awareness, as Starting Point for Performance Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 A Comprehensive Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Structure of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part I 2 ............ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 4 5 5 ... 9 ... ... 9 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Methodologies Green Energy Audit: General Aspects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Building Energy and Environmental Enhancement Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Defining the Operational Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Reasons that Lead to Energy and Environmental Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Scope and Aims of the Green Energy Audit . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 The Meaning of Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Energy Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Green Energy Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 The Green Energy Auditor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Definition of Operating Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Walkthrough Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Standard Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Simulation Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Organisational Aspects of the Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Contractual Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 The Relationship Between the Auditor and Client 2.5.2 The Implementation of the Retrofit Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 13 13 15 18 20 21 22 24 25 25 26 26 27 ix x Contents 2.6 3 Energy Audit and Energy Certification, an Integrated Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Commissioning Authorities and the Green Energy Audit. 2.7.1 The Conjunction of the Two Methodologies . . . 2.7.2 Commissioning and Retrocommissioning. . . . . . 2.7.3 Commissioning and Retrocommissioning: From New Buildings to Existing Buildings . . . . 2.7.4 The Re-commissioning Process for Existing Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application of the Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 General Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Definition of the Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actors Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Deliverable Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.4 Critical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Acquisition of Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Actors Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 Deliverable Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.4 Critical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Planning of Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Actors Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.3 Deliverable Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.4 Critical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Definition of Consumption and Performance Indicators. 3.5.1 Actors Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.3 Deliverable Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.4 Critical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Field Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.1 Actors Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.3 Deliverable Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.4 Critical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Verification of Indoor Environmental Conditions . . . . . 3.7.1 Actors Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.3 Deliverable Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.4 Critical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 30 30 31 .... 32 .... .... 33 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 35 37 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 46 47 47 48 48 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents Monitoring of Climate Parameters and Energy Consumption. . . . . . . . . 3.8.1 Actors Involved . . . . . . . . . 3.8.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.3 Deliverable Documentation . 3.8.4 Critical Issues . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Definition of Baseline . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.1 Actors Involved . . . . . . . . . 3.9.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.3 Deliverable Documentation . 3.9.4 Critical Issues . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 Definition of the Green Energy Plan . 3.10.1 Actors Involved . . . . . . . . . 3.10.2 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10.3 Deliverable Documentation . 3.10.4 Critical Issues . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 3.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 49 50 50 50 50 51 51 51 52 52 53 53 53 54 54 4 Acquisition of Basic Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 General Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Technical and Operating Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Energy Usage for Electrical Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Energy Usage for Thermal Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Parameterisation of Performance Through Benchmarking 4.5.1 The Scope of Benchmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Factors that may Affect Benchmarks . . . . . . . . 4.5.3 The Selection of Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.4 International Benchmark Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 55 56 57 61 65 65 66 66 69 70 5 Survey Instrumentation and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Instrumentation for Measuring Thermal Comfort 5.1.1 Thermometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 Infrared Thermometers . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.3 Anemometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.4 Hygrometers and Psychrometers. . . . . . 5.1.5 Microclimate Analysers. . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.6 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Instrumentation for Measuring Lighting Comfort 5.3 Instrumentation for Measuring Building Losses . 5.3.1 Endoscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Thickness Gauges for Panes of Glass . . 5.3.3 Heat Flux Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Blower Door Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 71 72 74 76 76 77 78 80 82 82 84 84 86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii Contents 5.4 Instrumentation for Measuring the Performance of Mechanical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Combustion Analysers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Flow Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Instrumentation for Measuring Performance of Electrical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Electric Energy Meters for Individual Equipment . 5.5.2 Electrical Network Analysers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Building Envelope Audit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 Geometrical Characteristics of the Building . . . . . 5.6.2 Photographic Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.3 Building Envelope, Opaque Walls . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.4 Building Envelope, Doors and Windows . . . . . . . 5.6.5 Building Envelope, Roofs and Basements . . . . . . 5.7 Audit of Mechanical Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8 Audit of Electrical Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9 Monitoring of Indoor Environment and Facilities . . . . . . . 5.9.1 Monitoring of Environmental Conditions. . . . . . . 5.9.2 Monitoring of Electrical Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10 Energy Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11 Verification and Calibration of Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7 ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 88 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 92 92 94 95 95 96 98 99 99 100 102 102 104 106 109 110 Infrare...
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