Simple and Fractional Distillation.odt - Simple and Fractional Distillation Lexa Marchese Chem 315-01 I Objectives Seperate and purify Toluene and

Simple and Fractional Distillation.odt - Simple and...

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Simple and Fractional Distillation Lexa Marchese 9/10/17 Chem 315-01 I Objectives Seperate and purify Toluene and Cyclohexane using simple distillation Seperate and purify Toluene Cyclohexane using fractional distillation
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II Theory Simple distillation is a procedure by which two liquids with different boiling points can be separated. Simple distillation can be used effectively to separate liquids that have at least fifty degrees difference in their boiling points. 1 Fractional distillation is essentially the same as simple distillation except that a fractionating column is placed between the boiling flask and the condenser. The fractionating column is usually filled with glass or plastic beads. These beads improve the separation between the liquids being distilled. 2 Simple distillation is used when trying to seperate a volatile liquid from a nonvolatile substance. If the liquids in the mixture that are being distilled have boiling points that are closer than 50 degrees to one another, the distillate collected will be richer in the more volatile compound but not to the degree necessary for complete separation of the individual compounds. Simple distillation works better with liquids with very different boiling points. 3 Fractional distillation is more efficient with liquids with closer boiling points. In fractional distillation the mixture is boiled in a fractionating column, a long tube that allows the liquid to vaporize and condense several times as it hits cooler air every time it makes its way further up the column. Our fractionating columns contained metal wire that helped the substances to condense more. This ensures that the vapor reaching the final condenser is as pure as possible. 3 Since the process of simple and fractional distillation are very similar the equipment used in
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