3 Essential Concepts Common to All Living Things 1.Principle of Complementarity of structure and function - organs are located and shaped in a way that allows them to perform their job effectively 2.Hierarchy of structural organization a.Cells make up tissue b.Tissues make up organs c.Organs make up systems d.Systems make up the entire body 3.Homeostasis - concept that displays a state of equilibrium *TEST* Anatomy- studies the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another 1.Gross - study of large structures (heart and lungs) 2.Microscopic - ex. Cytology (cells) and histology (tissues) 3.Regional - all structures in a given region 4.Systemic - study of anatomy system by system 5.Surface - the study of internal structures as they relate to overlying skin surface. Ex. use surface anatomy to identify muscles. 6.Developmental - trace structural changes throughout life. a.Embryology - (a subdivision of developmental anatomy) relates to changes occuring before birth. Anatomy:Medical diagnosis and Research 1.Pathological anatomy - structural changes caused by disease. 2.Radiographic anatomy - studies internal structures as seen with technical imagery. (X-ray, CAT scan, MRI) Physiology:concerns the function of the bod and its parts. There are many subdivisions that work with the functions of particular systems. 1.Renal - concerns with kidney function and urine production. 2.Neuro - explains the workings of the nervous system. 3.Cardiovascular - operation of the heart and blood vessels. Physiology often focuses on events at the cellular or molecular level. Function Always Reflects Structure 1.Known as: The Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function Necessary Life Functions 1.Organ systems do not work in isolation 2.They work together with other systems to maintain the entire body. 3.All systems are needed to sustain life to its fullest Integumentary System 1.Forms the external body covering (skin) 2.Makes (synthesizes) vitamin D
a.Used to maintain calcium levels in blood i.Calcium is needed for: 1.Neuromuscular function 2.Blood clotting 3.Bone and teeth development 3.Site of receptors (pain and pressure) 4.Site of sweat and oil glands Skeletal System 1.Protects and supports body organs 2.Gives framework for muscle attachment 3.Hematopoiesis - process of blood cell formation 4.Storage of minerals Muscular System 1.Allows movement (voluntary and involuntary) 2.Maintains posture 3.Produces heat Lymphatic System 1.Picks up leaked fluid from blood vessels and returns it to blood 2.Gets rid of debris in the lymphatic vessels 3.Stores white blood cells (lymphocytes) a.Used to fight off invaders Respiratory System 1.Keeps blood supplied with oxygen 2.
Gets rid of carbon dioxide Gas exchange occurs through air sacs in the wall of the lungs Digestive System 1.Breaks food down into usable material for digestion 2.Indigestible material is eliminated with feces Nervous System 1.Fast acting control system Which allows: internal and external changes in muscles and glands Endocrine System 1.Slow control system That allows: Hormone secretion for controlling growth, reproduction, and metabolism Cardiovascular System 1.Vessels Transport: