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History 5 Done - part 1 2, 6, 5 Part 2 1, 3 Post-1789 Part 1 Prompt 1 What is nationalism? Using historical examples of texts, individual thinkers, and events from at least two countries, write an historically grounded essay in which you define and interpret the varieties of nationalisms, in theory and practice, that have appeared in this course since the French Revolution. ●Nationalism can, in general, be defined as an overriding belief that the interests of the country should take supreme importance, and that one’s country should be free of foreign influence and domination ●However, there are many different kinds of nationalisms and can be backed up by different kinds of ideas and ideologies ○Italian nationalism, as espoused by Mazini or Mussolini, can be considered to be one flavor of nationalism ■Mazzini argued that the rights that were granted to people could be abused because of selfishness, and that there had to be responsibilities towards “Humanity”, which in practice, meant service to the state ■One had to have a love of their country above almost all else, in Mazzini’s view. He did not really support the idea of social mobility. In his view, everyone in a country was like members of an army, and the different social classes were like different regiments. Everyone had to follow their orders and do as their told in order to advance the interests of their own country ■He also tended to valorize war and combat, saying that it was glorious to fight for the country ■In Mazzini’s opinion, the laws of the country were the absolute thing that anyone should listen to or obey ■He also did mention “franchise”, so he did support democracy in some form ■Mussolini had similar ideas to Mazzini, but took them to an extreme. He stated that the state itself had some kind of spiritual significance, since it was the custodian of the “spirit of the people”, and therefore, one had to show absolute devotion to it at all times
■Mussolini also did3cvv not emphasize materialism that much -- rather, his idea was that the state was so powerful and important, that one could find happiness and contentment simply by serving it ■Mussolini also considered democracy to be bankrupt and decadent ○German nationalism had many similarities to the Italian version as can be seen in the writings of Von Treitschke, but, as can also be seen in the writings of Hitler, had a more racial and ethnic dimension to it ■Von Treitschke was very similar to Mazzini in that he had a conception of the state that bordered on the worshipful, and in his worldview, the main aims of a state were to administer justice and defend itself ■He demanded complete obedience to the state at all times; its laws should be absolute ■He also glorified war; in his mind, the only way for a state to serve its growing population was to conquer and take territory from other, weaker states ■Hitler was also incredibly militaristic, and believe that wars were the only way for a state to grow and test itself. Also against social mobility