Bodley pp. 103-128; 133-138 CH3How was Leslie White’stheory describing the relationship between energy and cultural evolution flawed? (p104)●before the use of fossil-fuel energy sources, per capita energy use did not increase significantly—humans remained the basic source of mechanical energy.○Complex societies can emerge without or with the minimal use of domestication.○The real difference was that domestication of plants and animals supported higherpopulation densities and larger total populations, and build cultural complexityWhy are high energy societies unsustainable over the long term? (p104-106)●high-energy cultures must be transformed to low-energy cultures when their depleted energy stores are burned up.○High-energy cultures thus have limited life spansthat can easily be predicted as compared to the five-billion-year life expectancy of low-energy cultures.○Or their growth may be haltedby the adverse impacts of the waste heat or global warming produced through energy conversion.What is ‘peak oil’ and what are its implications for the sustainability of a petroleum-based world system? (p106-108)●Peak Oil, would be the point at whichhalf of all the oil that could ever be produced would have been consumed, and that after that point production would declinebecause of the increasing difficulty of oil discovery and extraction.●Some analysts have argued that the total global supply might actually be 3.5 trillion barrels, rather than Hubbert’s 1.3 to 2.1○3.5 trillion barrels would be totally consumed within eighty years, so this does notextend the prospect for a petroleum-based world system very far.●Even if fossil fuel reserves were to prove virtually inexhaustible, continued use of these fuels at present rates is not sustainable because fossil fuels are the primary source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the primary cause of contemporary climate change. Historically, what has been the relationship between capitalism and consumption? (p117)●Historically, capitalist growth has invariably meant increased consumption, but it is possible to imagine capitalism without growth, development without growth, and development without capitalism as we know it●Consumption, rather than production, became a subject of widespread scholarly research only in the 1980s, when the global economy entered a dramatic new expansion phase widely attributed to the liberalization of trade under “free market” capitalism and new computer-based information technologies. this time many anthropologists, began to view
commodities as cultural objects. symbolic cultural meanings of commodities for individual consumers and their use in the construction of self-identity argued that markets, commodities, consumption patterns, and their cultural meanings are mutually constructed by marketers and consumers this interpretation makes capitalism and the culture of consumption seem both natural and inevitable, avoiding the crucial issues of class, social power, and sustainability raised by capitalism.