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1. Summarize and contrast passive and active forms of environmental management. Be sure to illustrate each form with specific examples from lectures, films, or readings mm. Active: When the people physically affect the environment, such as burning, clearing land, etc. Ex: The Mayans and Amazonians used this form of management. They would use slash and burn to clear land for farming. By letting the ashes smolder into the soil they improved the nutrient content of the soil. 10% of the amazon is tetra petra soil from this type of active mgmt. Mayans also practiced terracing, raised fields, fallowing, forest gardens, etc.
Passive: When the people use the environment to their advantage without affecting its naturality, such as rituals and ceremonies. Passive mgmt is linked to polyculture food production. Ex: Balinese water temples. (MORE DETAILS FOR BALINESE WATER TEMPLES)
Along a typical river in Bali, small groups of farmers meet regularly in water temples to manage their irrigation systems. They have done so for a thousand years. Over the centuries, water temple networks have expanded to manage the ecology of rice terraces at the scale of whole watersheds. Although each group focuses on its own problems, a global solution nonetheless emerges that optimizes irrigation flows for everyone. Did someone have to design Bali's water temple networks, or could they have
emerged from a self-organizing process? This is part of their culture and religion to respect water and consumption and ensure everyone gets what they need, thus it is by human design and the irrigation ditches would never occur naturally. They all have to communicate in order for it to work. (↑THIS IS DIRECTLY FROM YOUTUBE VIDEO DESCRIPTION) 0
Both active and passive forms of environmental management (adaptive management) and are forms of resource management (small scale management of specific resources). All societies display these. An example of active environmental management is burning, clearing land, cultivation and constructed landscapes. The most used of this is slash and burn. To be more specific, Amazonians used a method called slash and smolder.