Test 2 study guide.docx - MS I Exam 2 Study guide Key notes Interpreting ABGS(need to know normal blood gas values o Respiratory Opposite o Metabolic

Test 2 study guide.docx - MS I Exam 2 Study guide Key notes...

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MS I Exam 2 Study guide/ Key notes Interpreting ABGS (need to know normal blood gas values) o Respiratory Opposite o Metabolic Equal o Regular values: pH: 7.35-7.45 CO3: 35-45 HCO3: 22-26 Causes of acid/base imbalances Respiratory acidosis : DEPRESS o Drugs: Opioids – morphine, fentanyl, sedatives will cause respiratory depression If you are in respiratory depression, you are not expelling CO2 o Diseases of neuromuscular system: weakness in voluntary muscle o Edema: pulmonary edema o Pneumonia – excess mucous in lungs and lungs aren’t moving as properly o Respiratory center of brain damaged o Emboli – something blocking branch for air to get in, CO2 cannot removed o Spasms of bronchial tubes – asthma – blocking gas exchange and not taking deep breaths o Sac elasticity of alveolar sac is damaged (COPD and emphysema) – due to smoking Respiratory alkalosis : TACHYPNEA o Temperature increase in the body (fever) – hyperventilation occurs o Aspirin toxicity – too much aspirin tells body to increase breathing rate o Controlled mechanical ventilation – intubated patients are at risk o Hyperventilation – excessive respirations o hYsteria- anxiety attack, hyperventilation o Pain – pain can cause hyperventilation o Pregnancy o Neurological injuries – head injuries o Embolism and edema in lungs o Asthma due to hyperventilation Metabolic acidosis : ACIDOTIC o Aspirin toxicity – increase acid in body o Carbohydrates not metabolized o Insufficiency of kidneys o Diarrhea – rich in HCO3, diarrhea a lot of that means we are getting rid of HCO3 o Ostomy drainage – normally, your body absorbs all HCO3 and bowels do not have a lot of it, but with an ileostomy, the body does not have time to absorb HCO3 o fisTula – hallow passage in organs, fluids drain elsewhere o Intake of fat diet – too much fat, you are going to have too much acid o Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors – these drugs Diamox, diuretic Metabolic Alkalosis: ALKALI o Aldosterone production excessive: hyperaldosteronism, which causes you to keep sodium and get rid of electrolytes o Loop diuretics – you are ridding all the acids, which causes HCO3 to increase
o alKali ingestion- eating lots of antacids, milk, baking soda – those substances are very alkalotic o Anticoagulants – citrate: used in storage of blood, massive transfusion of blood where citrate is the storage of the blood, which the body interprets as HCO3 o Loss of fluids: NG suction, vomiting o Increased sodium HCO3 administration Manifestation of acid/base imbalances (what does the patient look like) Respiratory acidosis: Manifestations – buildup of CO2 in the blood – it cant get out – breathing less than 20 breaths per minute o Neuro changes: confused, drowsy, headache o respiratory depression – low respirations o Low BP o Rapid shallow respirations o Dysrhythmias (increased potassium) o hypoventilation = hypoxia o Patient can’t seem to catch his breath Respiratory alkalosis

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