Chapter 13 Solutions.pdf - CHAPTER 13 BONDING GENERAL CONCEPTS Chemical Bonds and Electronegativity 13 Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a

Chapter 13 Solutions.pdf - CHAPTER 13 BONDING GENERAL...

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527 13. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. Electronegativity is a bonding term. Electron affinity is the energy change when an electron is added to a substance. Electron affinity deals with isolated atoms in the gas phase. A covalent bond is a sharing of electron pair(s) in a bond between two atoms. An ionic bond is a complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another to form ions. The electrostatic attraction of the oppositely charged ions is the ionic bond. A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing. Ionic bonds form when there is a large difference in electronegativity between the two atoms bonding together. This usually occurs when a metal with a small electronegativity is bonded to a nonmetal having a large electronegativity. A pure covalent bond forms between atoms having identical or nearly identical eletronegativities. A polar covalent bond forms when there is an intermediate electronegativity difference. In general, nonmetals bond together by forming covalent bonds, either pure covalent or polar covalent. Ionic bonds form due to the strong electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Covalent bonds form because the shared electrons in the bond are attracted to two different nuclei, unlike the isolated atoms where electrons are only attracted to one nuclei. The attraction to another nuclei overrides the added electron-electron repulsions. 14. a. This diagram represents a polar covalent bond as in HCl. In a polar covalent bond, there is an electron rich region (indicated by the red color) and an electron poor region (indicated by the blue color). In HCl, the more electronegative Cl atom (on the red side of the diagram) has a slightly greater ability to attract the bonding electrons than does H (on the blue side of the diagram), which in turn produces a dipole moment. b. This diagram represents an ionic bond as in NaCl. Here, the electronegativity differences between the Na and Cl are so great that the valence electron of sodium is transferred to the chlorine atom. This results in the formation of a cation, an anion, and an ionic bond. c. This diagram represents a pure covalent bond as in H2. Both atoms attract the bonding electrons equally, so there is no bond dipole formed. This is illustrated in the electrostatic potential diagram as the various red and blue colors are equally distributed about the molecule. So the diagram shows no one region which is red nor one region which is blue (there is no specific partial negative end and no specific partial positive end), so the molecule is nonpolar. CHAPTER 13 BONDING: GENERAL CONCEPTS Chemical Bonds and Electronegativity