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StudyGuide test 1 - Psychology 230 Study Guide for...

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Psychology 230 - Study Guide for Examination I 1. Be able to describe the major controversies in developmental psychology such as nature-nurture, deficit-difference, continuity-discontinuity, and universal vs context-specific development. Be able to identify examples of each of these concepts. Nature vs nurture - Are we shaped by genetic & hereditary influences (nature) or by our environments (nurture)? Deficit vs difference – Universal vs context-specific - Does everyone go through the same kinds of changes at about the same time? Is development universal? Or Are there differences in how we progress through development depending on our culture and the context w/in which dev. Occurs? Continuity vs discontinuity – Whether the changes people undergo over the life span are gradual or abrupt. 2. Be able to describe the normative (age-graded, history-graded) and non-normative influences on development. Each socially defined age group in a society called an age grade or age stratum – is assigned different statuses, roles, privileges, and responsibilities. Age norms are society’s way of telling people how to act their age. 3. Be familiar with the assumptions of a lifespan developmental approach. Know who was the founder of developmental psychology and what his beliefs about development were. What factors influenced adolescence being identified as a distinct period of development? What is the current view of children? Who was Rousseau, Locke, and Hobbes and what were their views on development? G. Stanley Hall is the founder of the scientific study of human development. 4. Be aware of where different developmental theories stand on issues of nature vs nurture and continuity vs discontinuity. Major Group: Cognitive-Developmental Theories Innate programmed psychological structures evolve & determine how a child understands the world Dev. occurs in discontinuous stages Nature (unfolding of structures) and nurture (a stimulating environment) are emphasized Major Group: Ecological Systems Theory Person develops within a series of interacting systems (parents, school, culture) Person’s development is a continuous and gradual growth Nature (personality characteristics) and nurture (family, neighborhood, govt. policies) constantly interact Bandura’s Cognitive Social-Learning Theory Development is due to: Continuous, reciprocal interactions between person & environment Observational Learning (OL) Cognitive Activity We anticipate consequences We develop self-efficacy We reinforce ourselves w/mental praise or criticism
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5. Be able to describe the primary elements of the major developmental theories. Be familiar with Freud’s theory, Erikson’s theory, social learning theory, operant conditioning theory and behaviorism, Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory.
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