History Midterm Study Guide!!!.docx - HIST 101 Questions...

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Unformatted text preview: HIST 101 Questions Interactions in the New World Read: The American Yawp, Chapter 2: Colliding Cultures, sections I-IV. What was the “Black Legend” and how did it create justification for English colonization of North America? (you will need to read both section 2 and 4 to answer this question) When colonizing the America’s, Spain was extremely violent against the natives; slaughtering and raping them, women and children included. When looking to colonize North America, England used Spain’s violent reputation as justification. Due to tension between catholic and protestant churches, English explorers argued that they would not colonize north America so violently, promising to glorify god and spread Christianity. They assured that this would bring them superiority over the catholic Spanish. In what way did the “Black Legend” influence French and Dutch colonization in North America? The French wanted to distance themselves from the Spanish and discredit the anti-Catholic sentiments the Spanish caused. The French went to North America only with the intentions to trace, sending fur trappers and tradesmen, rather than permanent settlement. This led to more cooperative and beneficial relationships with the native Americans. The Dutch had the same intentions, not wanting to commit the same atrocities as the Spanish, they sought to profit from the new world, not conquer. The Dutch also held the belief that the natives held the same natural rights as Europeans and saw them as equals. In what ways did English colonization differ from that of French and Spain? The British did not have the means to travel and explore the new world, so they received a loan. Instead of going to the new world under the pretense of trade or land, they went with the intentions to “peacefully” explore and spread their religion in a much more civilized way than the Spanish. They also sought to seek wealth and more land due to the growing population in England. French wanted to converse and learn the culture, and marry to inherit land. Spanish wanted to make money and convert people to Catholicism. Jamestown and New England Read: The American Yawp, Ch. 2, sections V-VII Generally, describe the people who went to Jamestown. The people that went to Jamestown were people seeking wealth, land and resources. Many of the people going to Jamestown were second sons who did not receive and inheritance due to the family inheritance only going to the first-born son. A large number of number of people who also went to Jamestown were indentured servants who used their indentured servitude as a means to travel to Jamestown and gain wealth. Another number of people who went to Jamestown were people escaping their debt in England. What was the status of Africans in Jamestown? (be careful. Don't let your preconceptions control your answer.) Africans did not start as slaves in Jamestown, in fact, they actually helped settlers survived. While Africans were primarily brought over as indentured servants, they were also released at the end of their contract to become free landowners. How did the people who went to New England differ from those who went to Jamestown? the people who went to new England were not going to seek wealth, but to practice their own religious beliefs and start their own colonies. Also, opposed to the single men who went to Jamestown, those in New England were nuclear families. Originally, the Puritans had set up a contract with the Virginia company to settle a colony in Virginia, but ended up diverting to Plymouth. Race and the Slave Trade Read: The American Yawp, Chapter 3 British North American, sections I-III Was race the primary motivator for enslaving Africans? What evidence from the text supports your answer? No, race was not the primary motivator for enslaving Africans; religion was. In what way, did gender shape slavery? Women were not fit for slavery due to the risk of becoming pregnant and bringing in another person to feed and take care of. This was very expensive for slave owners who could only afford one slave. Women were also not fit to perform the strenuous work required in the fields and on the farm. They were only able to do work in the house such as cooking, cleaning, and as wet nurses. What internal debates kept England in turmoil? One internal debate that kept England in turmoil was the debate of religion. King James offered a more open society however, the puritans do not like this. Thus, king James imposes taxes on the puritan colonies and dissolves their government. This then turns Britain’s attention to the colonies who have not been paying taxes and freely trading with the Dutch, Spanish, French, etc. Life in the Middle Colonies Read: The American Yawp, Chapter 3 British North American, sections IV-VI What was the purpose of the Navigation acts? (the navigation acts are discussed multiple times. so, make sure you read more than just one piece) The Navigation Acts were put into law to bring British colonists in America back into British economy after they had been freely trading with other governments while not paying taxes. They were also put into place to tighten the English control over the North American’s colonies after they had been largely unsupervised, so to speak. What were the causes and results of Bacon's Rebellion? Cause: Nathaniel Bacon grouped people together to bum Jamestown and Indian settlements due to lack of protection from government. Result: Jamestown burned to the ground, Bacons sudden death ended rebellion with his followers being hanged. What was the Glorious Revolution and what were its causes? Parliament led it because they thought that King James II was abusing his power. William of Orange and his wife Mary overthrew James II for the sake of Protestantism What were the causes and results of King Phillips war? Cause: Indian rebellion over ownership of native lands, religion, and overpopulation of Europeans Results: King Philip dead, 3,000 native americans dead, 500 native americans were enslaved. 600 settlers were killed, 45 villages were attacked, 12 were destroyed. Colonial Society Read: The American Yawp, Chapter 4 What were the different types of slave systems that emerged in 18th-century North America? How did they differ? The three slave systems that emerged were southern slavery: centered around tobacco plantations and used the gang system. The gang system meant that slaves worked together on one project with an overseer and along with their slave master as well. , carolina slavery: centered around rice cultivation using the task system. The task system meant that slaves were given one task to complete for the day and once this task was completed, the slaves were done for the day. Slave masters no longer worked slaves leaving an overseer or slave driver in charge. This caused the punishments and work to be harder. mid atlantic slavery: consisted of singular slaves owned by master craftsman, small landowners and wealthy people. Most slaves were house servants or apprentices, working 16 hours a day. There were two political outlooks, Republicanism and liberalism, in the Anglo-American world. What was the definition of each? In what ways, do you think they worked to reinforce each other? Republicanism was the basic idea that power resides in the people and is exercised by their elected representatives. Liberalism was individual and private. Governments were constituted through a "social contract" through which individuals surrendered part of their rights to govern themselves. (life liberty and property) his idea in theory and practice was not propertied white man. the governed need to consent to those who govern them (social contract) What ideas generated by the American Enlightenment and the Great Awakening prompted challenges to religious, social, and political authorities in the British Colonies? Ideas that god withdrew from the world after he created it that natural laws should govern the universe that scientific knowledge could improve society. These ideas caused a fading in faith and also many felt that You can not trust authority three thousand miles away to protect your interest. They will protect their own interest and send people over here to protect their interests. (appointed preachers and priests) Using eighteenth-century concepts, explain who had the right to vote in the British colonies? How were the restrictions justified? Rich, white, protestant men who owned land. This justified by reasoning that these land owners had an economic stake in society and they had independence of judgement. What was the effect of the Seven Years war on the American colonies and their relationship to Britain? o o o o o Economy highly inflated, high demand for most goods Almost all production geared towards war effort Many merchants became privateers for reward on french ships 1/3 of able bodied men in colonies died in conflict Increased amount of widows Resistance in Colonial Society Read: The American Yawp, Chapter 5, Sections I-III What led to the separation of American colonial political culture from British political culture? The American Revolution and the resistance formed by it. Make a list of the short and long-term causes of the American Revolution. (You may use bullet points here. Separate and label the long and short term causes) Long term causes o o o o Seven year’s war The great awakening Increased taxation Resistance Short term causes o Sugar tax o o Stamp Act Reactions to british government What did the colonists find so objectionable about the Stamp Act? The colonists objected to another tax and felt that this tax was imposed without their approval. How did class difference manifest in resistance to the Stamp Act? legislative resistance by elites, economic resistance by merchants, and popular protest by common colonists. The Call for Independence Read: The American Yawp, Ch. 5, Sections IV-Conclusion What was the Boston Massacre? To what extent did it galvanize colonists against British rule? Bostonians were gathered outside the customs house and were increasingly hostile towards the British soldier’s present. Eventually, the British soldiers shot into the crowd, killing 5 civilians. Accounts of the event spread through the colonies, painting the British soldiers as “bloodthirsty”. This generated sympathy for Boston and anger towards Britain throughout the colonies. In what ways did Africans, Native Americans and women participate in the Revolution? Women participated in the revolution as consumers and producers. They were also a large part of unruly mob acts such as grain riots and raids on the offices of royal officials. This helped to elicit responses from Britain. Former slaves first fought in the war on the side of the British, who offered them freedom for doing so. They were not only soldiers for the British but, also laborers, skilled workers, and spies. Later in the revolution, slaves were freed to fight along the American soldiers. Many native American tribes chose not to fight on either side, while some sided with the British. Forming a New Nation Read: The American Yawp, Chapter 6 What was Shay's rebellion? In what ways, did it signal divisions following the Revolution? Shays rebellion was comprised of farmers who were in debt with creditors and wanted protection from the Massachusetts government. However, the government sided with the lenders causing the farmers to form blockades around the courts to prevent them from writing and sending out foreclosure notices. This signaled the division between those who believed these small rebellions kept the country free, while others believed it needed a strong central government to protect them from anarchy. What was the “Great Compromise” and why was it needed? The “Great Compromise” was a proposal that stated that each state would have two senators who could vote independently. It also counted the slaves in a state as three-fifths of a person towards their population. This was done to give equal representation to each state and give smaller states power equal to bigger states. Why were anti-federalists suspicious of the Constitution? What was the Federalists response to antifederalists’ concern? They felt that there should be a guarantee of specific rights in the Bill of Rights or American citizens would lose their personal liberties to a powerful government. The federalists went on with ratifying the constitution with attachment of proposed amendments. In what ways did Alexander Hamilton shape the economic and commercial future of the country? Hamilton created a national bank to be a depository for federal funds, control inflation, and print paper bank notes. He also favored the rich over the poor in terms of the economy, in turn giving the rich power over the government. He also supported private property and the need for the government to protect that right. What events led to the passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts? What did the laws do? The federalists feared that the rebellion and radicalism that spurred the French revolution would infiltrate the united states. Also during the French “quasi-war” with American merchant ships, they feared foreign agents causing internal subversion. The Alien Act allowed the federal government to deport foreign nationals, “Aliens”, who seemed to pose a national security threat. The Sedition Act allowed the government to prosecute anyone who spoke out or published any rhetoric against the government. What is the significance of the Supreme court ruling in the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison? The ruling of Marbury v. Madison gave the supreme court the power of judicial review on a federal level, meaning it has the power to decide if an act of congress violates the constitution. This was a lasting blow to the republican agenda, causing Jefferson to argue that this decision would give the judicial branch too much power. Jeffersonian America Read: The American Yawp, chapter 7 What ways did blacks and whites respond differently to reported slave revolts? White people were surprised that black slaves were capable of preparing and carrying out a calculated and violent revolution. This challenged their assumptions about the intellectual capacity of blacks being inferior; this notion terrified white people. On the other hand, enslaved blacks were inspired by slave revolts, spurring the belief that blacks could achieve just as much as whites. Why might regular citizens see Jefferson’s election to the presidency, “the revolution of 1800”, as a fulfillment of the American Revolution? (You should read all of section IV before answering this question.) It gave ordinary citizens hope and equal power to the rich in the government. It gave them the freedoms they believed they fought for in the revolution of 1776. In what ways were Jefferson’s ideas about the government and economics differ from Hamilton? (You might need to go back and look at your answer for chapter 6 to help you here.) Jefferson cut taxes and reduced the nation’s military, believing in peace. This helped reduce the national debt, which Hamilton had increased, seeking support from the wealthy and creditors. Why did Tecumseh and other leaders of the Pan-Indian movement find it so hard to maintain or get others to join in their movement? Other tribes maintained their relationships with the US., believing violence was not the answer to stop encroachment by the Americans. Others did not care for the confederacy that Tecumseh wanted. What were the causes of the War of 1812? British impressment of the American Navy, during which Americans were to remain neutral. Also, the U.S.’s desire to remain neutral in trading during the Anglo-French wars, leading to economic sanctions imposed by the British and French. America's Economic Revolution Read: The American Yawp, Chapter 8 What transportation technologies made up the “transportation revolution” of the 1800s? Canals, steamboats, and railroads. In what ways did the market revolution change slavery in America? Slavery was no longer used in the North due to industrialization. Slavery increased in the south due to its rise in cotton production and slavery’s free labor. The work became harder and the punishments became harsher for slavery in the south. In what ways did the market revolution change the lives of middle class women and children? Only the father worked, earning enough money to support the whole family. Women didn’t need to work, changing the relationship between man and woman in the house. Women were expected to cook and clean and to also be a moral compass for their husbands, guiding the through moral dilemmas. Kids were educated and expected to follow in their father’s steps in terms of a career. In what ways did industrialization change the work life of wage laborers? Wage laborers were de-skilled and were no longer artisans such as blacksmiths. Factory work forced them to do singular, labor intensive jobs. They worked long hours, often until the factory decided to close and send the workers home. Jacksonian America Read: The American Yawp, Chapter 9 What were the three parts of the Missouri Compromise? Why did the compromise need to be made? Missouri gained admission as a slave state, Maine is admitted as a free state, and slavery is prohibited north of the 36’ 30” from Missouri to the Rockies. What was the Nullification Crisis? How did it demonstrate increasing sectional competition and disagreements over slavery? The nullification crisis was a sort of war over trade tariffs that were expected to be nullified when Andrew Jackson became president. When he didn’t act against the trade tariffs, jc Calhoun took it upon himself to write an essay detailing why they should nullify the tariffs and holding a convention in South Carolina, in which the state claimed it still had sovereignty over its land and nullified the tariffs themselves. They forbade any customs officers in South Carolina to enforce the tariffs or collect tariff revenue. Jackson responded by sending the military in to enforce the tariffs. How did the Bank War influence the economy and party competition? (To completely answer this question, you will need to read sections VII-IX) The bank war worsened the country’s economic problems rather than solving them when Jackson vetoed to have the bank renewed. It also drew a divide between those who supported Jackson as democrats and those who opposed him and saw him as a tyrant as Whigs. Reforming America Read: The American Yawp, Chapter 10 What ways did the Second Great Awakening (religious revivalism) reinforce or expand egalitarian ideals? (you will need to read all of section 2 to completely answer this question.) It reinforced the ideal that all souls are equal and can be saved by god. Instead of having to have a theological degree and training, one could become a pastor solely by converting and having some sort of "Call to preach" What forces worked to link American and European reform movement. What was meant by “the benevolent empire”? What problems did it address? A catch all phrase for a movement, sought to fix women’s rights, alcoholism, prostitution, basically all the country’s problems. What were the differences between colonization, moral suasion, and political abolition? a b c d They are all the same thing, forms of abolition. (ending slavery) Colonization is the first form of organized abolitionism, beginning in Virginia. Wanted to move Africans back to Africa to avoid conflict in states with freed slaves Moral suasion tried to convince slave owners that Jesus didn’t like slavery, owning slaves was a sin Political abolition, believed that the constitution is an anti-slavery document. Why and in what way did women’s rights expand in antebellum America? It fought for womens civil rights and against barring women from attending college The Cotton Kingdom Read: The American Yawp, Chapter 11 What changes in the slavery and the slave system were created by the “cotton revoluti...
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