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Updated State Responsibility Problem1Attribution+Breach‐Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness (CPWs)State responsibilityRemedyAdvise M of M’s state responsibilityPotential Breaches by M1.M armed forces destroyed warehouses and truck convoys used for arms and drugtrafficking= breachof prohibition on the use of force (UN Charter art 2(4) + custom:Nicaragua)=breachof non‐intervention (UN Charter art 2(7) + custom: Nicaragua)Attributionto M?Yes: armed forces = state organ art 4 ARSIWACPW:consent of SSo nostate responsibilityfor this breach2.M armed forces occupied buffer zone:breachof use of force and non‐intervention as aboveUgandan invasion of DRC ‘a textbook example of the first one of the definitions of this most seriousand dangerous form of the illegal use of force’ in GA res 3314 defn of Aggression (Judge Simma inArmed Activities)Attributionto M? Yes, armed forces so state organ as aboveCPW:until March 2017 consent art 20 ARSIWABut no consent March – June 2017 (similar to situation in DRC v Uganda where Uganda remainedoccupying a border zone of DRC after the DRC govt had asked it to leave.)Self‐defence? Needs to beIn response to armed attackNecessaryProportionateIn accordance with other legal requirements eg IHL(Caroline = custom)
Updated State Responsibility Problem2Armed Activities: taking towns and airports hundreds of km from U’s border not proportionate…nor necessary so self defence likely does not apply=State Responsibilityfor IWA3.