DIABETES2Classification of DiabetesDiabetes is a group of disorders that is characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels. Diabetes is a growing medical epidemic in the United States. In 2015, there were 30.3 million individuals with known diabetes, and 1.5 million are diagnosed every year with diabetes [Sta18].Diabetes remains the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. In 2015, 79.535 deathswere reported to be secondary to diabetes [Sta18]. Diabetes is broken down into four classifications: type one diabetes, type two diabetes, gestational diabetes, and diabetes secondary to other conditions [Arc17]. For this paper, the concentration will be on type one, type two, and gestational diabetes. This purpose of this paper is to explain the differences between the types of diabetes with a concentration on the treatment of gestational diabetes. This paper will discuss any dietary considerations and the short and long-term impact of gestational diabetes on patients including the effects of drug treatments.
DIABETES3ClassificationsDiabetes is broken down into four classifications: type one diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), type two diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), gestational diabetes and diabetes secondary to other conditions [Arc17]. Type 1 DiabetesThis classification was previously known as juvenile diabetes. Type one diabetes affects people of all ages and is not just prevalent in children. Type one diabetes is diagnosed and more prevalent in adults than in children [Typ18]. The onset of type one diabetes can occur at any time, but most patients are younger than the age of thirty [Arc17]. Type one diabetes is thought to be an autoimmune disease. In type one diabetes the beta cells which is responsible for secreting insulin are destroyed. The exact cause of this type of diabetes is unknown at this time. Etiology suggestions are genetic predisposition to the destruction of beta cells, infections, autoimmunity, environmental factors, and viral agents[Arc17]. However, it has been noted be prevalent in the fall and winter months when viral infections are predominant. Type 2 DiabetesType two diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. Type two is most often found in middle-aged and older adults (45 or older) [Whand]. Type two diabetes is characterized by the bodies inability to make or use insulin well. This is known as insulin resistance. Adipose and muscle cells become less sensitive to the actions of insulin, or the pancreas can not produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body [Arc17]. The significant risk factors for the development of type two diabetes is obesity and having a family history of diabetes. Prediabetes
DIABETES4or history of gestational diabetes when pregnant increases the risk of developing type two diabetes later in life.