Notes - Protons that are farther than two carbon atoms...

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January 29, 2008 CHAPTER 13 NOTES CHAPTER 13 NOTES SECTION 13.11: Spin-Spin Splitting in 1 H NMR Spectra Signals are often split into multiple peaks due to interactions between nonequivalent protons on adjacent carbons, called spin-spin splitting . The splitting is into one more peak than the number of H’s on the adjacent carbon (n+1 rule) The relative intensities are in proportion of a binomial distribution and are due to interactions between nuclear spins that can have two possible alignments with respect to the magnetic field The set of peak(s) is described: 1 = singlet 2 = doublet 3 = triplet 4 = quartet J = coupling constant RULES FOR SPIN-SPIN SPLITTING Equivalent protons do not split each other The signal of a proton with n equivalent neighboring H’s is split into n+1 peaks
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Unformatted text preview: Protons that are farther than two carbon atoms apart do not split each other SECTION 13.12: More Complex Spin-Spin Splitting Patterns Spectra can be more complex due to overlapping signals, multiple nonequivalence Example: trans-cinnamaldehyde SECTION 13.13: Uses of 1 H NMR Spectroscopy The technique is used to identify likely products in the laboratory quickly and easily Example: regiochemistry of hydroboration/ oxidation of methylenecyclohexane Only that for cyclohexylmethanol is observed SUMMARY OF 1 H NMR Number of Peaks = Number of Different Protons Chemical Shift = Electronic Environment Integration = Relative Amounts of Protons Splitting Pattern = Number of Adjacent Protons...
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