Brain Damage and NeurolepticsIt is well known that standard neuroleptics cause tardive dyskinesia (TD). However, TD is usually thought of as a disorder that is limited to motor dysfunction. The citations below are simply a sampling of studies which have found that standard neuroleptics induce brain changes that lead to a more global decline. 1. E Christensen. “Neuropathological investigations of 28 brains from patients with dyskinesia.” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 46, (1970), 14-23. TD patients have structural abnormalities in the basal ganglia, enlarged ventricles, and sulcal markings.2. E.B. Nielsen, "Evidence for cell loss in corpus striatum after long-term treatment with a neuroleptic drug(flupenthixol) in rats,"Psychopharmacology, 59 (1978), 85-89. In rat studies, neuroleptics shown to cause loss of neurons in striatum.3. JL Waddington. Cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms, and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44 (1987), 907-912..TD associated with cognitive impairment and worsening of negative symptoms. 4. JB Wade, “Cognitive changes associated with tardive dyskinesia,” Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology,1 (1989), 217-227. TD associated with cognitive impairment. The researchers conclude: “TD may represent both a motor and dementing disorder.”5. R. Yassa. “Functional impairment in tardive dyskinesia: medical and psychosocial dimensions.”
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- Summer '07
- Schizophrenia, Antipsychotic, dyskinesia