Radiation Workers\u2019 Handbook_Radiation Control in the Mining.pdf - Radiation Workers Handbook Radiation Control in the Mining Mineral Processing

Radiation Workers’ Handbook_Radiation Control in the Mining.pdf

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Radiation Workers’ Handbook Radiation Control in the Mining & Mineral Processing Industry Uranium Mineral Sands Rare Earths NORM
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2 Radiation Workers’ Handbook Contents: Quick-Start Summary Introduction: Radioactive Ores, their Uses & Control History of Radiation & Discovery of the Health Risks History of Australian Uranium Mining Radiation Basics: Atoms; Alpha, Beta & Gamma rays; Activity and Dose Units Health Effects of Radiation Natural Background Radiation & comparisons with Medical Doses Sources of Radiation in the Resources Industries, U-238 & Th-232 decay chains Dose Limit Philosophy & History Regulatory Regime in Australia Dose Control Methods for Different Situations: Mining: Open Pit, Underground, In Situ Leach Processing: Uranium, Mineral Sands, Rare Earths NORM: Oil / Gas, Fertilizer Plants, Coal Washeries, Sinter Plants, Smelters Environmental Controls Transport Surface Contamination Controls & Clearances Radiation Monitoring Plans & Personal Dose Calculations Your Role, Responsibilities, & Required Competencies Comparison with Other Hazards Conclusion Glossary Further Resources & Contributors Image Credits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 PLEASE NOTE: This booklet has been written about the hazard of radiation and its controls. Other hazards have not been discussed in detail. Safety manuals are available at mines and mills which deal speci fi cally with other hazards. Radiation has been given a booklet of its own, not because it is the greater hazard, but because it is invisible and not widely understood.
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4 Quick-Start Summary: Radiation Dose Delivery Pathways, their monitoring and control As a worker in the mining and resources industries who mines or processes radioactive materials, or treats radioactive wastes, you can be exposed to radiation. This radiation dose must be kept ‘As Low As Reasonably Achievable’, and below the legal limit for radiation workers. On average, radiation workers get annual doses between a tenth and a quarter of the allowable limit. However the radiation exposures you receive in your workplace do need to be controlled and monitored. You can get a radiation dose at work via four ‘dose delivery pathways’. gamma ‘shine’ (irradiation) e.g. from outcrops or stockpiles of ore; inhalation of radioactive alpha emitting dusts or fumes ; ingestion of radionuclides in dust, food or water; and inhalation of radon decay progeny (or ‘radon daughters’) in mine air. All these pathways contribute differently depending on local conditions. General Principles of Dose Control Radiation Type Controls Monitoring (Dose Pathway) Gamma Time, Distance, Shielding Personal Radiation badges, survey meters Alpha emitters Dust suppression, Personal Air Samplers in airborne dust extraction systems, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Radon Ventilation, PPE Workplace air sampling Decay Products Ingestion of Dust Personal Surface alpha & cribroom cleanliness contamination surveys
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5 For protection against gamma rays (‘gamma shine’): TIME, DISTANCE, and SHIELDING are used to control gamma dose. Minimise your time exposed to the source,
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