Study Guide Exam III
Lecture 13 (Chapter 35)- plant structure
How are plant cells like all other cells?
Nucleus (nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin); ER's; Centrosomes, golgi,
mitochondria; peroxisome; membranes, ribosomes, cytoskeletons
How are plant cells different from all other cells?
Have: chloroplasts, central vacuoles and tonoplast, and plasmodesmata. Don't have:
lysosomes, centrioles or flagella.
What are the three basic parts of higher plants?
Roots, stems leaves
What are characteristics of angiosperms?
What are various things that roots do?
Anchors vascular plants, absorb minerals and water and store organic nutrients. Eudicots
and gymnosperm have taproot system. Modified roots: prop, storage, strangling
aerial, buttress, pneumatophores.
What are the various parts of the shoot?
Nodes – points of leaf attachments; internodes: stem segments between nodes; axillary
buds: can form lateral shoots; terminal bud: developing leaves and compact series
of nodes and internodes.
What are some modifications of shoots?
Stolongs (runners, asexual reproduciton); bulbs ( underground shoots made of bases of
leaves used for storage); tubers (enlarged ends of rhizomes for storage; eyes are
axillary buds making nodes); rhizomes (horizontal stem below surface; is noded)
What are the parts of a leaf?
Tendrils, splines, storage leaves, bracts (bright, surround flowers), reproductive leaves
What are some modified leaf functions?
Support, protection, storage, attractions, reproduction
What are the three plant tissues?
Dermal, ground, vascular
What is vascular tissue?
Carry out ling distance transport of materials between shoots and leaves
What is phloem?
Transport organic nutrients such as sugars to growth sites
What are phloem cells?
Seive tube members: living cells w/o nucleus, ribosomes or vacuole with perforated end
walls allowing for transport of nutrients across cell. Companion cell connected by
pasmodesmata has missing organells to support seive tube members and help load
What does phloem do?
Organic nuctrient transport.