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CHAPTER 9 AP® FOCUS & ANNOTATED CHAPTER OUTLINEAP® FOCUS Period 4: 1800–1848 AP U.S. History Key Concepts 4.1 World’s first modern mass democracy developed in the United States; emergence of a new national culture; and struggles to define the nation’s democratic ideals and reform its institutions. • Debates over federal power, states’ rights, and the authority of different branches of the federal government. 4.2 Developments in technology, agriculture, and commerce led to changes in settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, and political power. • The Market Revolution had significant effects on migration, gender and family relations, and distribution of political power. 4.3 Government policy shaped by interest in expanding trade and national borders. • Policymakers aimed at dominating the North American continent. • Various individuals and groups initiated, supported, and/or resisted expansion of territory and/or government powers. •Westward expansion gave rise to debates and compromises over the extension of slavery. ANNOTATED CHAPTER OUTLINE The following annotated chapter outline will help you review the major topics covered in this chapter. I. The Rise of Popular Politics A. The Decline of the Notables and the Rise of Parties 1. The Rise of Democracy a. Expansion of the franchise was the most dramatic expression of the democratic revolution; beginning in the late 1810s, many states revised their constitutions to give the franchise to nearly every white male farmer and wage earner. b. Smallholding farmers and ambitious laborers in the Midwest and Southwest launched the first challenges to the traditional political order; the constitutions of new states prescribed a broad male franchise, and voters usually elected middling men to local and state offices. c. By the mid-1820s, only a few states—North Carolina, Virginia, and Rhode Island—required the ownership of freehold property for voting. d. Between 1818 and 1821, some eastern states reapportioned legislatures on the basis of population and instituted more democratic forms of local government. e. Democratic politics was contentious and, because it attracted ambitious men, often corrupt. Powerful entrepreneurs and speculators—both notables and self-made men—demanded government assistance and paid bribes to get it. 2. Parties Take Command a. As the power of the notables declined, the political party emerged as the organizing force in the American system of government. b. Parties were political machines that gathered the diverse agenda of social and economic groups into a coherent legislative program. c. Although the beneficiary of elitist education and financial support, Martin Van Buren advocated a political order based on party identity, not family connections.