8\/30 Intelligence and Language .docx - Intelligence Crystallized vs fluid intelligence Crystallized intelligence Accumulated knowledge The stuff that

8/30 Intelligence and Language .docx - Intelligence...

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Unformatted text preview: Intelligence - Crystallized vs fluid intelligence - Crystallized intelligence - Accumulated knowledge - The stuff that you know - Fluid intelligence - Ability to learn new things, manipulate information, and apply it to new situation - Fluid intelligence leads to more crystallized intelligence - As people age, fluid intelligence peaks and then goes back down - However, crystallized intelligence grows over time - How many different types of intelligences are there? - General intelligence (G): the shared factor across cognitive tests - Cognitive test scores are correlated with each other - General Intelligence is the ability that correlates with scores across al cognitive tests - Mathematical reasoning, reading comprehension, working memory span, etc - Includes knowledge acquisition, abstract reasoning, adapting to new situations - Multiple intelligences are combination of g, other cognitive abilities, and personality traits - Think of differences between intelligences vs ability or skills - Factor analysis - When groups of items correlate with each other, this statistical technique can be used to identify variables (factors) that influence those items - Verbal comprehension, perceptual organisation, working memory, processing speed - Raven’s progressive matrices example - IQ: standardized measure of intelligence - Tests designed to measure g are given to people of different ages - Battery of many different tests (figure 9.4) - Average score within an age group= IQ of 100 - No “genius” IQ level anymore - 140+ IQ was considered genius or near genius in 1916 - Wechsler 1939 “we are rather hesitant about calling a person a genius on the basis of a single intelligence test score” - Now, 130+ is considered very superior - Measuring Intelligence - IQ predicts academic and career success, better health, less crime - One study of English 16 year olds showed that g accounted for 58% of Mathematics class performance, 48% of English, 18.1% of Art and Design - High IQs are over-represented in this room - Universities select for high g - Intelligence is a normal distribution (68, 95, 99.7) for standard deviations - Nature or Nurture - Nature - Identical twins (same genes) have highly correlated IQ’s (r=.86) - Fraternal twins (less genetically similar) show lower correlation (r=.60) - So IQ is heritable (genetic component) Nurture - Twins raised in the same home have more similar IQ’s than twins raised apart - Poverty is associated with lower IQ - Nutrition and toxins - Education is also associated with higher IQ - SO: IQ is plastic (environmental component) Gender differences? - No consistent difference between mean IQ score of males and females - Some studies have found tiny differences in both directions - Male distribution has higher variance - More extreme scores, both low and high - Same for left handed people - Female curve is much more high and steep, while male curve is more flat, but means are the same intelligence as an adaptation - Our environment is largely shared with animals - So why did abstract intelligence only evolve in humans - The human social world is uniquely large and complex - The bigger your society is, tend to have a bigger proportion of cortex - Imaginative reasoning is needed to deal with complex relationships that are constantly changing - Human societies experiment with making their own rules more than animals do (organizing hunts, sharing resources, etc) - Humphrey: intelligence as a social adaptation - Gorillas: fight over meat, don’t understand what other gorillas are doing whereas humans can share the meat and figure out a way to cooperate and think for others - - - Language - Nature vs nurture in language - Nurture - Plato: deaf people can communicate using gestures - Language is not a divine gift, but a flexible capacity - Darwin: animals communicate through complex vocalizations and expressions - Human language is built on pre-linguistic capacities of animals - Nature - Chomsky’s radical hypothesis - Humans have a language acquisition device built into the brain - Innate “universal grammar” common to all languages - Chomsky believes language to develop like an organ, rather than a skill - Not totally flexible or totally innate - Humans are wired (nature) for specific kinds of learning (nurture) - Language - Semantics: what words and sentences mean - Deep structure that is largely shared across different languages - All languages have a concept of hunger - - - - - - Grammar: rules for creating words (morphology) and combining them into sentences (syntax) - Surface structure varies across languages - I am hungry (english) - I have hunger (german) - Humans (esp younger ones) have an innate predisposition for learning grammar Animal Communication - Vervet monkeys use different vocalizations to warn about specific predators - Certain calls will be for a snake whereas a different one will be for a hawk - Indexical: specific sounds refer to specific things in the world (concrete, not abstract) - There's an eagle-run for cover! - There’s a leopard- get in a tree! - Finite set of vocalizations, you can only talk about things that you have experiences Human Language - Symbolic: words refer to each other in complex ways - If you can think of it, you can label it with a word - Allows for abstract concepts that you can’t “point to” in the world - Infinite possible meanings can be constructed - How many grammatical sentences under 20 words? - There isn’t a limit to a longest sentence - Words can refer to each other in infinitely complex ways Primate Cognition - Kohler’s insight experiments - Chimps discovered they could stack boxes to reach banana - Chimps can perceive complex situations - Chimps can integrate information and limited in the present moment and what’s right in front of them - Some primates can use sign language, printed symbols - Few “words” - Require extensive training - More like conditioning than human language learning - Associating stimuli (hand sign) with responses (getting food) - No ability to invent or combine words in creative ways Motivation, emotion and personality - Motivation: driving force that guides behavior - Goal: desired state (eat, reproduce) - Emotions are personality traits can be seen as tools or evolutionary strategies to accomplish goals - Emotions: mental and physiological states that influences attention and behavior - state=temporary - Personality: relatively stable patterns (traits) of feeling, thinking, and behaving Evolutionary Approach to Motivation - Why are we driven to pursue things like food and sex? - Motivations are adaptive: aid survival and reproduction in specific environments - Urge to eat, have sex, etc lead to greater reproductive success - → more of that drive in the next generation - Natural selection requires: - - - - - - - Variability: differences between individuals in certain characteristics Selection: certain characteristics lead to increased reproductive success - More of your genes are passed on → trait becomes more common Why is there sex? - DNA of offspring is a combination of male and female DNA - Gametes (sex cells) - male sperm and female egg carry DNA - Leads to new genetic sequences that may be more adaptive - Speeds adaptation to changing environments - Protects against pathogens Who wants sex? - Male or female stranger approaches college student of the opposite sex - Asks if they want sex - Results: - Males: 75% - Females: 0% - Males are more likely to engage in promiscuous sex Sex differences - Males - Produce a lot of sperm - Require less parental investment per gamete - Motivated to spread seed - Females - Produce limited number of eggs - Require more parental investment per gamete - Motivated to secure a helpful partner Emotions: Affect, Arousal, and Appraisal - Affect: the experience of an emotion (what it feels like) - Arousal: physiological (bodily) component of emotion - Regulated by autonomic nervous system (HPA axis) - Appraisals: interpretations that accompany emotions - What you think the emotion means - This scary bear is trying to eat me Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion - Affect and arousal occur at the same time - You feel fear and your heart races when you see a bear James-Lange Theory of Emotion - Arousal comes first, and determines what the emotion feels like - Different patterns of arousal → different emotional experiences - William james: we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble - Stimulus: a threatening grizzly bear approaching - Arousal: heart pounding, trembling, running away - → therefore feel fear Facial feedback Hypothesis - Rate how funny a cartoon is - Two conditions: hold pen in your teeth or hold pen in your lips - In teeth activates smiling muscles, whereas holding in lips activates frowning muscles - Original result: - - - - - Cartoons rated as funnier in the teeth vs lips condition - Consistent with james-lange theory - Physical state then you figure out what emotion you are feeling Two factor Theory of emotion - Arousal determines intensity of emotion - Highly aroused → intense emotion - Appraisal determines which emotion - Arousal is coming from dangerous stimulus → feel fear - Example: wobbly footbridge study and giving numbers to men, heart pounding during middle of bridge were more likely to call - Fear related arousal was interpreted as sexual attraction - Misattribution of arousal: incorrectly identifying the source of emotional arousal Mammalian Emotional Systems - Mammals share subcortical emotional systems - Jaak panksepp traced 7 basic emotions to their roots - Found subcortical brain systems corresponding to specific motivations - Seeking system regulates goal pursuit - Dopamine → feelings of anticipation and reward - Image: neurons that release dopamine become active when reward is received - When a CS is paired with a reward, dopamine neurons fire in response to CS alone (anticipation) - PLAY system: feelings of joy - Play contributes to social bonding in mammals - Also enhances fitness, cognitive abilities, tool use, creativity - Rats laugh (ultrasonically) during play and tickling - More tickling → more laughter → rats approach researcher hand more quickly Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma - Intense stress can have lifetime effects (PTSD) - Prolonged stress leads to heightened secretion of cortisol, which leads to reduced immune system function - Cortisol levels are higher in abused and neglected children - Early stress can lead to more intense stress responses throughout the lifespan, creating a snowball effect Emotion regulation - How do you deal with negative emotions? - Suppression: attempt to reduce expression of emotion - Feeling angry but acting happy - Suppression requires attention, reduces working memory performance - Associated with increases in stress over time - Cognitive reappraisal: reframing your reaction - Roommate doesn’t do dishes → this is a chance to increase my leadership skills - Increases mood with no known negative consequences ...
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