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Chapter 5semantics:literal meaningpragmatics: consider the conversational circumstances surrounding aspeaker's delivery of a messageDiscourse and discourse, small d refers to language in use. Big D is whendiscussingthecombinationoflanguagewithothersocialpractices(behaviours, values, ways of thinking, clothes, food, customs,perspective) within a specific group.arbitrary: (language is arbitrary) words are not intrinsically connected towhat they represent.( its just a symbol, its something that people agree itsmeaningambiguous: (language is ambiguous）meaning of words aren't clear-cut offixed. words are the same but meaning varies according to people's uniqueexperienceesabstract: (language is abstract), it is not concrete or tangible. words standfor ideas, people, events, objects, feelings, and so forth, but they are not thethings they represent. the word c-a-t is not in fact a real cat.linguistic relativity: the idea that the language a person speaks affects howeh or she perceives the world is commonly referred to as the Sapir-Whorfhypotheisis(Whorf,1956) also referred to as linguistic relativity, or in its mostextreme form, linguistic determinism.communication rules:are shared understandings of what communicationmeans and what kinds of communication are appropriate in particularsituations.