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1Running head: DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIESDisorders of the Veins and ArteriesGene DoughertyWalden UniversityNURS 6501: Advanced PathophysiologyDr. Kari MauSeptember 23, 2018
2DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIESDisorders of the Veins and ArteriesThe different components of the circulatory system are composed of veins, arteries, and capillaries that transport blood to and from the heart, supplying blood flow to the entire body. There are different components and disease process that involve the venous and arterial blood flow, but the two main focus are chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The pathophysiology of both disorders will be compared as well as looking at the difference in venous versus arterial thrombosis. The factor that will be addressed is age and behavior as risk factors and associations to increased risk for CVI and DVT. Insufficiency and thrombosis will also be extensively evaluated with a mind map to connect the dots from each central problem to all the outlying factors.PathophysiologyAccording to Huether & McCance, chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) occurs due to varicose veins or valvular incompetence which occurs due to trauma of the saphenous vein that damages one or more valves or gradual venous distention caused by the action of gravity on blood in the legs. This is a result of inadequate venous return over long periods of time (Huether& McCance, 2017). “Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) describes a condition that affects the venous system of the lower extremities, with persistent ambulatory venous hypertension causing various pathologies, including pain, edema, skin changes, and ulcerations. CVI often indicates the more advanced forms of venous disorders, including manifestations such as hyperpigmentation, venous eczema, lipodermatosclerosis, atrophie blanche, and healed or active ulcers. However, because varicose veins also have incompetent valves and increased venous pressure, we use the term “CVI” to represent the full spectrum of manifestations of CVD” (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2014, p. 333).
3DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIESAccording to Stone et al, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is related to Virchow’s Triad that implicates three factors responsible for the formation of thrombosis: venous stasis, vascular injury, and hypercoagulability. The most crucial factor of the three is venous stasis, however it alone isn’t sufficient enough to create thrombus formation. It is venous stasis with the concurrent of vascular injury or hypercoagulability that greatly increases the risk of clot formation. The clinical conditions that are closely associated with DVT are fundamentally related to Virchow’s Triad and they include; surgery or trauma, malignancy, prolonged immobility, pregnancy, congestive heart failure, varicose veins, obesity, advancing age, and history of DVT (Stone et al., 2017).